Ill.mo Domino, D. Antonio Vallisnerio Nobili Regiensi, In Archigymnasio Patavino Practicae Medicinae Lectori Primario, Patrono suo Colend.mo dicabat hoc schema Corographus.a
Abd Oenofrio Ogyge2 fundata Kitim3 ad meridiem Hetruriae, destinatur alendis gregibus aquilonaria hic regio4 G<…>eranis nepotibus; per cacumina montium apparuerunt illico tentoria, circumsepta mapalia ad tuendum greges accomodata; ab Enachio Gygantum5 proelio reversum Lygurem Foetontis filium6 exceperunt pastores nostri, a quo venationem edocti feroces in monstra evaserunt; ad politiam suam Iovis7 Osyridis8 redacti bestiarum catabula in castra et oppida transmutarunt; Lestrigonum tyrannorum9 immanitatem pertaesi, et Apino Foroneo10 in protectorem assumpto montes Ciminos11 Camesono12 sanguine cruentarunt, placuitque ab Apim Apenninos, et a Foroneo Alpes dicere Faeronianos; Chorithis13 Tuscorum ae Morgeto14 usque ad Mezentium15 crudelem fideles, perutilesque habiti sunt Faeroniani; Chorithatus Hetruscus in duodecim lucumonatos distractus16 iuxta numerum primatialiumf civitatum. Ocno Bianoro,17 et reliquis thoparchis Lunensibusg adhaesere nostrates; adversus hostes Tyrrenae Reipublicae18 ad proeliandum invitati plura de Caenomanis,19 Allobrogibus,20 et Celtis trophea reportarunt, spectante Tito Vulturreno, Cecinna, et Menippo Lalarthibus;21 deleta per Q. Fabium Romuleum22 Ianigenorum Democratia,23h Lyguribus montanis manus dare decreverunt Dorchetes24 Feroniani; commilitonibus his incredibilia sunt damna, quae intulerunt Ligures Alpini sociis Romanae Reipublicae, Pisanis, Lucensibus, Parmensibus,i et Mutinensibus; ad compescendos Lygurum Gigenios Consules triginta defatigaverat Roma, videratque inter alios
Antequam per Ninum35 et Zoroastrum36 inventa forent idola, unum deum sano doctore venerabatur Hetruria, grece dicta Tyrrenia, latine <…>cricola; per Chamesenos,37 temerata religione ea, cultum in idolatriam transmutavit; inter <…> numinum somniatorum catervam elegerunt <si>bi Proserpiniam38 incolae regionis istius, ut qui<bus> poenis inferorum se noverant digni, valerent tamen sacrificiis ad misericordiam flectere 10 ominum Haerebi;39 ab Apenninis Foroneis, a feracitate regionis, a ferocitate efferatarum gentium, a ferendis arboribus, a ferratis cothurnis sacerdotum Feroniam dixerunt; tanta fuit religio oppidanorum, tantus amor erga Feroniam, ut non solum lucos, saltus, Palilios40 dies festos, regionem ultra, citraque montium Lethaeum appellare voluerint nomine numinis, sed et se ipsos dicere Feronianos; Feroniani cultus ardore dilatandi, multos de grege sacricolas usque ad Montem Soractem non longe a mundi metropoleon direxerunt nostrates, ut in nova Feroniana Civitate nomen Hecathis41 longe, lateque celebraretur, ad cuius Penum Romulea superstitio facilius posset appendere vota sua. Mirum fuit inter tot deorum pluralitates a caeteris nationibus admissas, solos Feronianos stetisse singulares in unius numinis veneratione: quare de his solum modo per sinedrion vaticinatus est Hieremias Propheta C. 2, cum de omnibus Italis, et maxime Hetruscis idolatris dixerit Hebreis: transite ad Insulas Chitim, et videte si mutavit gens deos suos:42 et quod prophetale sarcasmos de nostris tantum specialiter verificetur, prae ceteris argumentantur Romanum Panteon, et aliarum gentium recentes theogoniae, et revera praedicatio Apostolorum
Nomina,ah et cognomina Nobilium Romanorum, a quibus Oppida Feroniana coeperunt nomenclaturam, incipiendo ab altioribus.
3Cneus Peticusai—S. Pontaccio.
18L. Plautius, et V. Pandaaj—Piazza.
1ak Lucius Munatius Plancus—Minucciano.
Supradictae duae Vicariae subsunt in spiritualibus Episcopo Sarzanensi: sequentesal vero parent Episcopo Lucensi.
27Publius Flaccinator, et F. Nobilior—Pieve Fosciana, e Fossandera.an
Domenico Cecchi (1678–1745), a renowned cartographer from Castiglione di Garfagnana. He drew several other maps of this region. See (Cecchi 2007); (Foschi 2013), 219–220; http://www.giornaledibarga.it/index.html?pg=8id=923.
Ogyges (Ὠγύγης). In Greek mythology, he was a hero from Boeotia and king of the Ectenes (Εκτένες), who were supposed to be the earliest inhabitants of this region. This myth is associated with the Ogygian deluge, a great flood which occurred during his reign. According to other myths, Ogyges travelled to Italy and reached Tuscany, founding several cities. On this topic, see (Carbone 1840), 56–81; (Inghirami 1825), 71, 83–84; (Valeriani and Inghirami 1833), 25, 68.
“Kitim”: Volterra (Province of Pisa), once a powerful Etruscan city. Among the many studies on this topic, see (Camporeale and Maggiani 2009). The use of the name “Kitim” for Volterra, as well as several other words and data in the following part of the text, suggest that Tramonti frequently relied on Curzio Inghirami’s forged source. With respect to the word “Kitim,” for example, see (Inghirami 1637), 7–8, 14, 19–21, 60, 132, 142, 302.
Garfagnana is here described as “northern” (“aquilonaria regio”), as compared to the more southern Volterra.
From “Anakim” (“Sons of Anak”), a race of giants mentioned in the Bible. Arguably, “Enachio” comes from the distorted term “Enachii,” from Curzio Inghirami’s book ((Inghirami 1637), 21–22), where this race is supposed to live in Etruria.
Ligure, or Ligisto. In Greek mythology, he was son of Phaeton (Φαέθων), who—in turn—was son of the god Apollo. He became the legendary king of a part of western Italy (hence the names “Liguria” and “Livorno”). See (Magri and Santelli 1769), 26, 69.
Jupiter (Iuppiter/Ζεύς), Latin and Greek god of sky and king of the gods.
Osiris, Egyptian god of the afterlife, resurrection, and of the underworld. According to Curzio Inghirami’s book, he defeated the Enachii with the aid of Apis, an Egyptian king. See (Inghirami 1637), 22.
Laestrygonians (Λαιστρυγόνες), a race of giant cannibals from Greek mythology. In Homer’s Odyssey—(Homerus/Ὅμηρος n.d.), X, 103–134, http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0012.tlg002.perseus-grc1:10.87-10.132—they destroyed Ulysses’ fleet (except his ship) and ate many of his men. According to Curzio Inghirami’s interpretation, Laestrigon was a grandson of Osiris. The Egyptian god gave him and his kin dominion over Etruria ((Inghirami 1637), 22).
In Greek mythology, Apis (Ἄπις) was an ancient king of Argos. He was son of the demigod Phoroneus (Φορωνεύς): first king of this land and inventor of fire, who contributed to the civilizing of the Italic peoples (see (Inghirami 1825), 83–84). It is not clear whether or not Tramonti identifies the Greek Apis with the homonymous Egyptian king.
Monti Cimini (“Cimini Hills”), a range of volcanic hills located in the Province of Viterbo, northwest of Rome (about 55–60 kilometers, or 34–37 miles). They are not part of the Apennines, having an independent geological origin. On this topic, see (Peccerillo 2005), 17, 19, 27, 37.
“Camesono”: From “Cameseuna,” which—according to Curzio Inghirami—was another name for Volterra. See (Inghirami 1637), 142.
“Chorithis Tuscorum”: This term may refer both to the current Cortona (Province of Arezzo), once an Etruscan city, and to its legendary founder, king Coritus. See (D’Aversa 1986); (Valeriani and Inghirami 1833), 166. Here, this word could also indicate any generic Etruscan king or ruler.
According to Curzio Inghirami’s book ((Inghirami 1637), 22, 29, 39, 50, 73, 193, 202, 206), Morgetes was the name of several Etruscan kings. In this passage, it is not clear which one Tramonti is referring to.
Mezentius: a legendary, ungodly, cruel Etruscan king. He is mentioned in the Aeneid ((Vergilius n.d.), VII–XI, http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0690.phi003.perseus-lat1:7.647-7.654) as an enemy of Aeneas.
This passage alludes to the Etruscan League (or Dodecapolis), an alliance of twelve Etruscan cities that—according to the tradition—established a religious, economic, and military alliance in Etruria. The exact identity of these cities is still uncertain. On this topic, see (Museo Claudio Faina 1985); (Studi Etruschi ed Italici 2001).
Ocnus (Ὁκνος), or Bianor. In Latin and Greek mythology, he was son of the god Tiberunus. He founded and was the first king of Mantua: according to Virgil ((Vergilius n.d.), X, 198–203, http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0690.phi003.perseus-lat1:10.198-10.214), he allied with Aeneas against the Italic tribe of the Rutuli.
Arguably, the Etruscan League.
Cenomani, also known as Aulerci Cenomani. This Celtic tribe once occupied a territory in the Cisalpine Gaul, between the Insubres (on the west) and the Veneti (on the east).
Allobroges, an ancient Gallic tribe located between the Rhône River and Lake Geneva.
The term “lalartes” (plural of “larth”) is almost exclusively found in Curzio Inghirami’s book. Arguably, this is a distortion of the Latin/Etruscan word “lares,” plural of “lar,” or “lars” (“lord”). According to this forged source ((Inghirami 1637), 35–42, 48–54, 57–71, 74, 144, 183), the lalartes had administrative, military, and judicial powers in the Etruscan cities, and were elected by the kings (“lucumones”) and/or by the people and the Senate. As Tramonti states, Titus Vulturrenus, Cecinna, and Menippus were Etruscan “lalartes.”
Most likely Quintus Fabius Maximus Rullianus (IV–III century BC), a Roman consul. From 310 to 295 BC, he fought and won several fierce and decisive battles against the Etruscans and their allies (Samnites, Umbrians, and Gauls), allowing Rome to dominate central Italy.
Arguably, the author refers to the coalition defeated by the Romans. The name “Ianigeni” derives from the Italic deity Ianus, thus being a general definition for all the Italic peoples.
According to several sources, in ancient Rome and in Etruria the dorchetes were the wisest augurs: high priests who interpreted the will of the gods by observing the sky and the flight of birds. On this topic, see (Ciatti 1638), 540; (Marcucci 1766), 177; (Tola 1837), 230; (Vedriani 1665), 9. However, this could be another forgery from Curzio Inghirami’s book, where the word “dorchetes” is frequently used ((Inghirami 1637), 42, 127, 235–238). Not by chance, all the above mentioned sources were published after the Ethruscarum antiquitatum fragmenta. Moreover, Pasquale Tola explicitly considers Inghirami to be a reliable author ((Tola 1837), 230).
This passage refers to a crucial episode in the Ligurian wars, when the Ligures were besieged by the Romans on “Mons Balista” (now Mount Valestra) and on “Mons Letum” (a mountain whose identity is still debated). According to Titus Livius in his Ab Urbe Condita ((Livius n.d.), XLI, 17–18, http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0914.phi00141.perseus-lat3:1), the two Roman consuls in charge at that time (176 BC) were Quintus Petilius Spurinus (who died in the battle) and Caius Valerius Laevinus. However, these names do not correspond to those mentioned in the manuscript. This discordance may be due to a transcription error by the author. “Rutilius” could be a distortion of “Pectilius”—which, in turn, could be a distorted version of “Petilius.” Thus, this name may actually refer to Quintus Petilius Spurinus. On the other hand, “Lentulus” could be a distortion of “Laevinus,” and, therefore, could mean Caius Valerius Laevinus.
The Etruscan language. From Iapetus (Ἰαπετός), a Titan in Greek mythology, son of the primordial deities Uranus (Οὐρανός) and Gaia (Γαῖα, or Γῆ). He was associated with the west, and, therefore, with the western peoples (as the Etruscans).
Vertumnus, an Etruscan and Roman god of seasons and change. According to several authors (including Tramonti), he was identified with the deity Vadimonus. See also (Adami 1737), 68; (Bardetti 1769), 4; (Teoli 1644), 2–3.
This passage refers to the great civil conflicts that scourged the late Roman Republic in the I century BC, resulting in the establishment of the Roman Empire: Sulla’s civil war; the war fought by Julius Caesar (100–44 BC) against the Senate and Gnaeus Pompeius Maior (106–48 BC); and the last one, which opposed Octavianus (who would become the first Roman Emperor, Augustus, 63 BC–14 AD) and Marcus Antonius (83–30 BC). In the aftermaths of these fluctuating events, many supporters of the losing factions were forced to escape from Rome, and not a few of them took shelter in Garfagnana.
According to Tramonti, Garfagnana was spared (relatively) from the destructive effects of the barbarian invasions of Italy during the fall of the Roman Empire.
Louis II of Italy (also known as Louis the Younger, 825–875), King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 844 until his death.
Adalbert I (circa 820–884/6), Margrave of Tuscany and Tutor Corsicae from 846.
During the XIII and XIV centuries, Garfagnana was discontinuously occupied by the Republic of Lucca. This troubled sequence of events was part of a wider and complex context of struggles which took place in central and northern Italy between Guelphs and Ghibellines (and later, in Florence, between White and Black Guelphs). On this topic, see (Pacchi 1785), 127–140.
Castruccio Castracani degli Antelminelli (1281–1328), military leader (“condottiero”) and—formally—Duke of Lucca from 1325 until his death. He fortified the citadel of Castelnuovo di Garfagnana. See (Pacchi 1785), 138–139.
Paolo Guinigi (1376–1432), powerful lord and, officially, Captain and Defender of the People (“Capitano e Difensore del Popolo”) of Lucca from 1400. See (Pacchi 1785), 156–160.
Ninus, legendary Assyrian king and alleged founder of Nineveh. His wife was the likewise legendary queen Semiramis, who succeeded him after his death. On this topic, see (Seymour 2014), 61–78, 115–116, 231.
Zoroaster, founder of Zoroastrianism.
“Chamesenos”: The inhabitants of Volterra. On this term, see note 12.
Proserpina (or Persephone, Περσεφόνη), also known as Cora (Κόρη, “maiden”). Along with her mother Ceres (or Demeter, Δημήτηρ), she was the Latin and Greek goddess of agriculture, vegetation, harvest, and fertility.
Erebus (or Erebos, Ἔρεβος), a Latin and Greek primordial deity, god of darkness.
Parilia, or Palilia: an ancient Roman festival held in honor of Pales, the patron deity of shepherds and flocks. On this topic, see (Beard, North, and Price 1998), 174–176.
Hecates (Ἑκάτη), Latin and Greek goddess of sorcery and ghosts.
Book of Jeremiah, Chapter 2, verses 10–11. Actually, this passage does not refer to Etruria but to Kittim (Citium/Κίτιον), an ancient settlement on the west coast of Cyprus. However, in Hebrew literature this name gradually acquired a wider meaning, referring to the whole island of Cyprus, to the Aegean Islands and, more broadly, to any invader coming from the Mediterranean islands (such as the Greeks, Macedonians, and the Romans). See (Finkelstein and Silberman 2001), 348–351; (Kugel 1998), 366–367, 950. Probably, Tramonti’s misinterpretation is due to the similarity between this biblical name and the word “Kitim,” which—according to Curzio Inghirami’s forged source—was the ancient name of Volterra.
Saint Paulinus (or Paulinus of Antioch, I century AD), first Bishop of Lucca (circa 46–68 AD) and patron saint of this city. On this topic, see (Beverini 1829), 1–2, 30–34; http://sacrumluce.sns.it/mv/html/MON/MON_990013000000000/frameset_cap3.html.
Saint Valerius (I century AD), disciple and successor of Paulinus as second Bishop of Lucca (circa 68–96 AD). See (Beverini 1829), 35; http://sacrumluce.sns.it/mv/html/MON/MON_990013000000000/frameset_cap3.html.
Pyromancy, an ancient practice of divination by fire.
Saint Theodorus, Bishop of Lucca (allegedly from 350 to 400 AD). See (Beverini 1829), 2, 38; http://sacrumluce.sns.it/mv/html/MON/MON_990013000000000/frameset_cap3.html.
Arguably, Pope Eutichianus (228–283 AD), who was from Luni. See (Repetti 1843), 193.
Felicius, Bishop of Lucca (circa 685–686? AD). See http://sacrumluce.sns.it/mv/html/MON/MON_990013000000000/frameset_cap3.html.
The passage refers both to the violent struggles among Christians in the III and IV centuries AD, between the followers of the presbyter Arius (Arianism) and the supporters of the Nicene Creed (adopted after the First Council of Nicaea in 325 AD), and to the persecutions of Christians carried out during the reigns of the Roman Emperors Nero (37–68 AD), Domitianus (51–96 AD), and Maximianus (250–310 AD). However, this last name could also—and more likely—allude to Galerius (whose official title, in fact, was Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus Augustus, 250/260–311 AD): a renowned and fierce opponent of Christianity.
Saint Blancus, Saint Peregrine’s only companion.
Saint Vivianus (or Saint Vianus, VI–VII century), who settled in a still existing hermitage in the Apuan Alps. According to tradition, he met with Saint Peregrine and Saint Blancus.
Arguably, Saint Terentius of Luni (circa 556–VII century?), martyr and sixth Bishop of Luni. See http://www.webdiocesi.chiesacattolica.it/pls/cci_dioc_new/consultazione.mostra_pagina?id_pagina=25138.
Saint Primitivus (III century?), martyr. His cult is particularly vivid in Castelnuovo di Garfagnana. See (Vinceti 2007), 86.
Blessed Ercolano da Piegaro (?–1451), a Franciscan friar from Perugia who settled in Garfagnana. See (Angelini 1990).
Saint Irenaeus (?–?), martyr. His body, now preserved in Castiglione di Garfagnana, was carried from Rome and donated to the city in 1680 by the influential Guazzelli family (see http://www.castiglionenews.it/index.php?option=com_contentview=articleid=697:langolo-del-passato-piccola-ricerca-su-santireneocatid=57:langolo-del-passatoItemid=76).
Alfonso III d’Este (1591–1644), Duke of Modena and Reggio from 1628 to 1629. He abdicated in favour of his son Francesco (1610–1658) and entered the Capuchin friars with the name of Giambattista da Modena. He died in Castelnuovo di Garfagnana. On this topic, see (Tiraboschi 1825), 131.
No biographical data were found about this person (arguably, he was a priest or a friar).
Bartolomeo Guidi (XVII century), a priest from Barga. From 1651 to 1660, he was parish priest of the Pieve di Santa Maria, a Romanesque church in Loppia (now a hamlet in the municipality of Barga). On this topic, see (Magri 1881), 71.
Most likely, one of the many ecclesiastic members of the Barsotti, a powerful family from Lucca. On this topic, see (Barsotti 1693); (Catalano 2007), 120–121, 131–132, 148, 158.
Probably Pellegrino Bertacchi (1567–1627), from Camporgiano. He was Bishop of Modena from 1610 until his death. See (Al Kalak 2004); http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/pellegrino-bertacchi_(Dizionario-Biografico)/.
No biographical data were found about this person (arguably, a priest or a friar).
The author of this map is Domenico Cecchi.
This autograph inscription allowed to recognize Cecchi’s handwriting in several other parts of the manuscript.
Tramontio, et Iosepho Franchino Cancellario
From this point on, the writer is unknown.
Tuscorum Amor a
In the text: primatiulium
In the text: Lunenensibus
In the text: Parmenis
In the text: choortes
In the text: abbundanti
incrassarunt; ut civilibus
In the text: plurimis
ditati, in nova
In the text: comunem
in deterius habiturum deterius
In the text: passa repulsis
In the text: argerum
In the text: heccatombem
In the text: prothonnotarum
In the text: sanginis
In the text: anthistites
The whole text on the verso of the map is written by Domenico Cecchi.
Ledron fiume di Vaii, e del Poggio. Sarida f. di Giovian.
Pedona f. di Diecimo. Segon. f. di Ghiviza.
Contesora f. di Fregionaia.
Lozzori f. di Vicopelago.
Rogio f. di Colognera, e Carraia.
Seravezza entra nel f. Versiglia, che sbocca in mare.
Tra Uzzano, e M. Carlo vi è Pescia su la piegatura del fiume.
O M. Fiore.
O Codiponte. O Vugliacallo.
O Vocer, o Voleno.
O Pietra Santa.
Il fiume vicino a M. Carlo e Villa Basilica si chiama Clodo.
Tasso. Cant. 7.
704 torri eran in Lucca. Castruccio fattosene Signore del 1316 ne distrusse 300 della parte guelfa.
Vite de’ Santi di Cesare Franciotti, p. 488.
1266. Lucca entra sotto la protezione del Papa.
Avverti che li baloardi si fer del 1512, 13, 18, 19, 20.
Lucca ridotta in fortezza con 11 baloardi, posto dentro S. Frediano del 1265.
Del 1519 si spianta la chiesa di S. Colombano de licentia Papae, e si ci fa baloardo. Era degl’Agostiniani.
1. 1. Oratius Putuillus—Pulliano
Sarzanensi: In Vi sequentes
In the text:
Publius Flaccinator, et F. Nobilior Pieve Fosciana, e Fossandera.
Publius Flaccinator, et F. Nobilior
Pieve Fosciana, e Fossandera.
This entry is unnumbered, having been added later.
This entry is unnumbered.
This entry is unnumbered.
The author of this map is unknown.
Table of Contents
PART I Introduction
PART II Primi Itineris per Montes Specimen Physico-Medicum: Transcription
5 Maps: Transcription
PART III Primi Itineris per Montes Specimen Physico-Medicum: Translation
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