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Iter montanuma 

Quem tibi ego non essem ausus mittere, nisi eum lente, ac fastidiose probavissem. Ita Cicero ad Atticum de quodam suo libello.1 I.r] I.v] 

Garfagnana p. 31. II.r] II.v] III.r] III.v] 

Primi itineris per Montes Specimenb Physico-medicum. 

Ab Antonio Vallisnerio de Nobilibus de Vallisneria in Patavino Archyliceo Publicoc Primario Theoricae Professore, ac Regiae Societatis Angliae sodali, Sapientissimis, ac Praeclarissimis eiusdem Societatis Sodalibus dicatum: 

ab Italo Idiomate in Latinum versum a L.V.2d 

Sapientiss.mi, et Praeclariss.mi Sodales toto Terrarum Orbe celeberrimi. 

Quis putasset, Sodales Amplissimi, vim ingeniorum, atque praestantiam studiis obesse, quis rationem, rem divinissimam, nos obtundere, ac pene ineptos efficere ad assequendam veritatem? Dictu id mirum, et monstro simile, sed eventu facillimum, mentis enim curiosa subtilitas adeo pulchras effingit, et parturit opiniones, concinne adeo, arguteque mentitur, ut plerique hominum fucatis orationibus capti, et tanquam laqueis irretiti erroribus pro sapientia utantur, iisque semel placitis indormire malint, quam liberari. Conatae sunt aevi nostri Academiae, inter quas vestra eminet, torporem hunc nobis excutere ad experimenta lacessendo; mihi quoque fas sit ante pedes vestros rudem IV.r] libellum proiceree non dissimilia tentantem, res quippe habet visu compertas, non ingenio. Horridulus quidem est atque incomptus, sed veniam dabitis inter Alpes nascenti. Per aestivas vacationes ea mihi vicinis montibus inerrandi cupido incessit; nec tela prae manibus ad figendas feras, sed calami, et pugillares gestabantur ad venandam veritatem. Praecipuam utilitatis discipulorum meorum rationem habui, arcanos latices, et inexploratas fontium medelas illis in reditu monstraturus. 

Descendite paululum, viri gravissimi, de sapientia illa, qua Literariae Reipublicae consulentes maria, terras, caelum respicitis. Praebete vos faciles exiguis conatibus meis, et pavidum adhuc ob magnitudinem beneficiorum vestrorum, nova quadam benignitatis culpa, in maiores ausus erigite. 

Datam Patavii 1705 

Addict.mus, et Obseq.mus famulus, et Sodalis 

Antonius Vallisnerius IV.v] 

All’Accademia di Reggio. Etc.3 

Sprezzerete forse,f o riveritissimi Accademici,g una filosofia, che si rampechi su per le balze più discoscese, e per inospiti monti cammini, e chiedendo risposte, dirò così, per imparareh il cupo genio della natura, e scoprir le sue leggi, da que’ tacitii orrori; mentre non pare, chej abbian che fare né punto, né poco luoghi aspri, e deserti dallak natura stessa abbandonati, col colto, e mite ingegno de’ filosofi, e segnatamente col vostro, dato solo alle muse più dilicate, ed agli studi più ameni. Scarseggiamo, potrete per avventura rimproverarmi, talmente delle ricchezze del vero, che dobbiamo partirsi da città fioritissime, dove sil coltivano con tanto ardore le belle arti, e le scienze, e portarsi, per acquistar la sapienza, dove appena poche orme di fiere ci guidano? Che cosa apportano alti scogli, acquem spezzate fra dirupi disaggradevoli, e terribilin caverne, seo non una spezie di confusione, e di oscurità agli occhi nostri, e timore e orrore alle menti? Così parmi di sentirvi parlare,p né so, che ridire, se non che confido, che queste mie alpestri osservazioni portate avanti di voi perderanno molto della sua nativa rozzezza, mentre la verità, benché col testimonio de’ monti, e delle voraggini scoperta, e quando sarà addimesticataq dalla gentile presenza di così nobile adunanza,r potrà facilmente cangiar aspetto, ed apparire più splendida,s e decorosa, nella maniera appunto, che veggiamo le deformi nuvole, se toccano la vicinanza del sole, divenir belle, e dilettevoli. 

A mezzo agosto presi il cammino verso i monti, non solo, per rilassare alquanto l’animo mio oppresso da più severi studi, ma ancora, ad esemplo degli oltramontani (che, per vero dire, indefessamente s’affaticano per illustrare la natura, e ci rimbrottano, e cit rinfacciano un ozio vile, e infindo)4u per rintracciare le nostre mediche, e naturali ricchezze, che senza invidia d’alcuno su quelliv abbondevolmente si trovano. Mi pare,w o Signori, anche una cosa, che non siax priva del suo diletto, discenderey ora in profonde valli, ora calcare le somme cime de’ monti, e porre il capo infin le nuvole, oraz guardarsi all’intorno, e non vedere, che asprezza di terreno, e di cielo, dove attorniato da sole fiere, e da solo orrore vi si fomenta un non so che di grande, e degno di tante difficoltà, e dove allora un filosofoaa come maggior di seab stesso, posto sopra i popoli, e sopra le torri V.r] delle città, libero da ogni cura, e superiore ad ogni fortuna, senza lo strepito delle sonore scuole, tutto pien di natura tacito, e solo colla natura contrasta.ac V.v] 

La prima cosa, che mi venne fatto vederead fu la nobileae zolfatara lontana un miglio da Scandiano, postaaf alle radici del Monte detto del Gesso,5 dietroag un piccolo rivoah che porta le acque nelai vicino Torrente Tresinara.6 Questo fu, cheaj scoprì la minera, mentre col radere ora daak un canto, ora dall’altro, strascinava uniti co’ sassi, e terre, e arene, pezzi di puro zolfo, che osservati sino ne’ tempi antichi diedero occasione di ricercare il luogo, doveal nasceva,am il quale, benché trovato, fu posto non so per quale scempiagginean in una subitaao dimenticanza. Sotto il Serenissimo Principe Luigi d’Este,7 verso il fine del caduto secolo, seguitando il rivoap a portar tanto zolfo, quanto, accattandolo, bastava a poveraaq gente diar continuo lavorare zolfanelli da vendere, cadde in pensiero ad alcuni, di cercareas di nuovo questa minera, che facilmente fu ritrovata cosìat ferace, che daau sé sola soddisfa, per ogni bisogno, a tutte le vicine città. Dueav sinora sono le cave fatte dall’arte, che comunicano insieme peraw lo giuoco necessario dell’aria, capaciax di due uomini, che vi lavorino in piedi, e che co’ loro ordigni portino fuora la cavata minera.8 VI.r] VI.v] VII.r] VII.v] 

Ill.mo, ac Spectatiss.mo viro etc.9 

Reptantemay inter invias cautes Philosophiam, et a montium iugis petita responsa despicies merito, amicorum optime. Quid enim horridis locis, et a natura ipsa desertis cum cultissimo, atque mitissimo ingenio tuo? Adeone, inquies, laboramus inopia veri, ut a florentissimis civitatibus, ubi literae fervent, eundum sit pro sapientia comparanda, qua vix pauca ferarum vestigia nos ducant? Quid saxa praerupta, et fractis fontibus ululantia, quid nisi tenebras oculis, et pavorem mentibus afferunt? Haec te mihi videor exprobrantem audire, neque aliquid contra mussito. Montanasaz tamen observatiunculas, ubi manus tuas attigerint, horroris aliquid, et inconditae ruditatis posituras confido, nimirum veritas testimonio montium, atque voraginum indicata, contrectatione tanti viri, atque commercio facillime poterit in nitorem, decusque assurgere, quemadmodum videmus informes nubeculas, si tangantur vicinia solis, fieri formosas. Sed manus ad tabulam. 

Ingressus sum iter dimidio Augusti montes versus, non solum relaxandi animi gratia, sed ut vix tactas a nostris opes medicas, et naturales, quibus abundant, rimarer. Sic Gesneri,10 amici Scheuchzeri,11 aliorumque transalpinorum vestigiis inhaerenti mihi iucundum fuit, modo per ima reptare, modo summa tenere cacumina, et usque ad ipsas nubes attolli. Videbatur VIII.r] mihi locorum, caelique asperitas, atque horror feris circumfusus fovere aliquid tantis difficultatibus dignum, et veluti maior me ipso supra populos locatus, et urbium culmina, humilesque curas despiciens, totus natura plenus cum natura solum ipsa per silentium rixabar. 

Consideranti mihi occurrit primo VIII.v] antrumba sulphuris a Scandiano uno lapide distans, quod in Collis Arcis Gypsi radicibus occidentem versus patet,bb brevibus tumulis circumseptum, atque graveolens. Excellensbc sulphuris minera est, acbd ad omnes vicinas, longinquasque etiam civitates explendas satis, superque ferax. Fossoribus imperat D. Ippolitus Spallanzanus,12 quibe rerum naturalium curiosus scrutator una cum Doctissimo D. Paolo Valla13 Philosophiae, et Theologiae Doctore indefessus itineris etiam montanibf comes fuit. Vix primum caveae fornicem ingressusbg observabam multibh iugas sulphuris glebas flavus-pallidiusculas magnitudinis diversae, variis striis, acbi ramis sulphureis intersectas deorsum versus tendentibus, 3] inversi arboris instar, argillae,bj seu margae subcineritiae duriusculae, squammatae, lucidaequebk infixis, quam vocant fossores cretone.bl Fig. 1.14 

Tam striae,bm quam glebae purum putum sulphur sunt, quarum interdum nonnullas adeo enormis magnitudinis invenere, ut supra quatuor centum libras ponderarent. Ita per bis centum passus cuniculiforme antrum extenditur, in quo aggeratim hinc inde levorsum, ac dextrorsumbn modo maiori, modo minori copia luxuriat. Non tamen semper in creta, vel marga illa infixumbo est sulphur. Quandoque in saxis tartareis durissimis alte figitur, quod sulphur caninum vocant, ob laborem, uti dicunt, caninum, ut eruatur. Sulphureae stiriae cretae impactae secant transversim eiusdem lamellas assulatim dispositas, quae uligine quadam lucida quasi oleosa ubique levigantur. Frequenter etiam sulphur saturi coloris lucidum, transparens, succinique adinstar reperitur, quod vivum, vel virginale dicitur,15 haeretque tartareis fluoribus, margae nunquam. Licet fere totus mons gypseus, interque patulos eiusdem hiatus, aut inter stratorum interstitia minera germinet, vixbp tamen aliquando sulphur intra gypsi viscera, vel eiusdem nudo cortici adhaerens invenitur.bq Imo ubi lapidis specularis, spati, gypsique fragmina16 reperiebantur, ibi fere nullum sulphur. Aqua tenuibr filo deorsum cadebat ab alto depluensbs inter cretam, lapidesque quosdam ita levigatos,bt ut aliquando a fluctibus agitatos diceres. Colorabat omnia, quae lambebat, progressu temporis ferrugineo quodam velo,bu salesque nitrosi17 cruciatim ut plurimum dispositi hinc inde extuberabant. In ima fodina sulphuris truncus,bv quem vocant filone, residet, a quo tot 4] veluti rami circumundique dispersi, cumbw pommisbx sparsim infixis nutrimentum sugunt, ac maturescunt. Latitudo eiusdem ad pedes sex, longitudo adby centum, usque adhuc exporrigitur. Inter saxa quaedam calcaria reconditur, quae aliquando a gypseis, tartareis,bz terreisque stratis disterminatur. Differtca a Romana, uti referebant fossores, vulgo canopi, quoniam ibi vena inter stratum, et stratum orizontaliter explanatur, fodiuntque puteos, ut ipsam eruant, scandianensis vero obliquecb inter orizontalem, verticalemque occidentem versus sitacc sequitur stratorum, seu crustarum montis modo rectos, modo curvatos ordines. Hinc illa per puteos, haec per cuniculos facilius, minoribusquecd impensis eruitur.ce Nec adeocf vastae purissimi sulphuris glebae romanis in fodinis reperiuntur, sed improbo labore illud excavant impurius, quodcg post ignem subviridi,ch ac dilutaci flavedine perfusum expertum est.cj Nostrum verock adcl citrinum flavocm saturum vergit, et virginale ad croceum. Acidis scilicet particulis vitriolum18 redolentibus illud abundat, pingui magis istud, et inflammabili substantia. Hinc nostrum minorem olei sulphuris portionem per enchirisim19cn donat. Ex quo sequitur, quod sulphurarii nostri morbis illis tentari non soleant, de quibus celeberrimus Ramazzinus in egregioco suo Opere de Morbis Artificum Cap. X scripsit.20 Omnes perpetuo sani degunt, non ultimum plebis operantis solatium. Cum etenim aura sulphuris acida sit ea, quae gladiolis hostilibus tenellas nostri corporis fibras pungit, et lacerat, ramosis,cp ac plicatilibus copiosis involuta retunditur, viresque illae, quas in aliis exerit, edomantur. Hinc pro remediis pectori praecipue faventibus elaborandis Scandiani sulphur aptius aliis existimamus. IX.r] IX.v] 

Novumcq aerem caveacr haec a lateralibus cuniculis artefactis, sed ab alto romana bibit.cs Solstitioct cu tamen aestivo ab operibus otiari necesse est, eo quod adeo densi vaporum glomi erumpant, haereatque ita turbidus inter utrumque finem aeris motus, ut et lumina extinguantur, et homines. Nullae hic aestuant thermae, nulloque incendio, ut vulcaniis quibusdam in agris, torrentur arva, aut quia contrariae, vel ignivomae salium glebae, ex quibus lucta incandescit, desunt, aut quia per obstructa montis spiracula libera aeris percolatio, ex qua necessarium flammae pabulum, desideratur. X.r] X.v]cv Millenascw sulphuris libras quolibet anno elaborant, multosque opifices fodina recens ditat. 

Nec sicco pede transire fas est, saluti labanti beneficia,cx quae passim porrigit. Primus ego foedissima etiam, et gallica scabie21 laborantes ad sulphureum laboratorium, tamque ad anchoram sacram22 misi, ut dum ignescit, ac percolatur sulphur fumocy pannos, lintea, manus, subuculas, totum corpus imbuerent, ac saturarent, ex quo post paucos dies felicissime sanescebant.cz 5] Primis sane diebus pustulae exasperantur, tumentque, despumato scilicet a scoriis, crudisqueda recrementis sanguine, sed paulatim aridis cadentibus crustis, exuto veluti squammoso senio, reflorescit cutis. Interfectis enim vermiculis, qui rodendo, ac perforando scabiei primaria causa existunt, refermentatoque cruore, ac per hiantes volvulosdb data illa occasione quicquid impuritatis in suo sinu fovebat, elutriato, voluptuosum illum Plinii dolorem,23 ac inamabilem scalpuriginem exuunt. Iddc quod etiam obtinent, si, ea aqua, quae sulphuri fundendo,dd et in subiectos modulos <… > descensuro praeit,de pluries abluantur. Antequam enim sulphurea vena, vel frustillatim contrita minera in candentibus ollis liquescat, ac igne concepto tumens in contigua vasa fistulosum delabatur rostrum, ut exeat, pars aquea salibus multigenis, spirituque sulphureo imbuta prius attollitur, et e rudi veluti alembico per inferam cannulam stillansdf in amaro-acidum, potuque immitem liquorem abit. Huncdg sine medicorum consilio paucis ab hinc diebus haemopthyxicus excipulum bibebat rusticus, stulte sibi sapiens. Credebat enim, quod si solo sulphuris fumo morbosae pectoris partes revalescunt, eodh magis, si se medicatis illis, ac minera imbutisdi undis ingurgitaret. Sed res contrariadj voto successit.dk Scissisdl nam ulteriusdm a salibus illis acutisdn antrosi, facilisque visceris canalibus, fere totam evomuit purpureamdo animam.24 

Et quo coniicere licet, quanto errore plectantur illi, uti supralaudatus notabat Ramazzinus, qui sulphuris spiritum in morbis pectoris praescribunt, XI.r] autumantes, quod sulphuris acidum idem sit, ac totum concretum, ac pars easdem vires habeat, quas totum, quod maximae supinitatis indicium est. Balsamum nam pulmonum vulgo audit sulphur, quando acido suo, quo abundat, spoliatum est, uti Iunchen in Chymia sua experiment., C. de sulph.,25 ac Etmullerus in sua Mineralogia testatur, ubi ait, sulphur merito balsamum pulmonum vocari, quando illius pinguedo a parte acida corrosiva fuerit separata.26 Hinc mirari subit, quomodo Schröderus in sua Mineralogia pulmoniacis, tussientibus, ac similibus flores sulphuris vitriolatos commendet,27 quoniam tantum abest, ut vitriolum addere, quindp potius insitum attraheredq dr debeamus, si balsamum pulmonum, et phthiseos praeservationem volumus. Nec solum scabiemds aqua praedicta sed sordida etiam antiquo tabo ulcera,dt impetigines, ac herpetes delet. Tumores etiam duros immixta cum fodinae sulphuratadu marga discutit, lichenes sanat, pruritus omnes mitescere cogit. Multi etiam immani tussi catarrhoquedv dw viscido anhelosidx ex emplastro praedictae margae aqua calamody dissolutae pectori applicito citissime sani evaserunt. Eadem aqua, cui minera sulphurea excocta sit, deinde filtrata, erisipellata ruboresque faciei <maxime acta>, si tepidiuscula superimponatur; sulphurdz enim referturea inter cosmetica, vel quae cutieb nitorem conciliant, sive infundatur in aquam frigidam, sive decoquatur. XII.r] 

Ludentem etiamec videbamus amicum, qui sulphur virginale nummoed cuiuslibet metalli superimponendo, deinde illud flammulae candelae accendendo, crustam bellule postea, remanente adhuc eadem effigie, ac characteribusee in nummoef defervefacto tollebat integram. Quod impostoribus fallendi, philosophis docendi campum praebet. XI.v] 

Neceg sola cutiseh externaei opes accensi subej dio sulphuris sentit. Asthmaticos, phytisicosque saepeek sanatos vidimus, prorsus, ac indecepto nostro eventu,el si diu balsamicos, ac detergentes illos halitus absorbeant, ac tolerent.em Tantaeen molis est diversum mixtorum ingenium cognoscere, et dato tempore naturae, non morbo favere. XII.v]eo Necep antiquieq nostri quando alias sulphuris fodina eruebatur, aeris medicati salubritatem ignorabant. Fundamenta extant adhuc xenodochii supra tumulum minerae proximum erecti pestilentiali quodamer tempore, provido sane consilio. Hippocratis scilicet exemplo,28 etes legibus edocti, qui grassantem pestem igne, sulphuratisque remediis arcebat, solis ignis, sulphurisque halitibus una cum aere saluberrimo absorptis, morbi saevitiemet edomabant. 6] Plures resinae terrestris seu sulphuris flores29eu in extima vasorum externorum superficie adhaerescunt, qui ex eodem cadente in substratum alveolum elevantur,ev fuliginesque ipsae sub tignis, nigroque tecto pendentes, praeter alia, plurimis sulphureis ramentisew scatent. Igni namque admotae subitam flammam concipiunt caeruleam, sulphurisque naturam sapiunt, exex quibus quaenam nova, et efficacissima remedia parari possent, tu ipse, qui ad praxim tamey sedulo incumbis, concipies. 

Moleculisez adeo activis, et penetrantibus pollet, ut, dum in primis internis ollis liquescit, per earundem porulos pars volatilior erumpens externumfa veluti velamen variosfb trahens colores afc lambentibus flammis perpetuo accensum efformat. 

Ut autem omnes huius minerae partes abiectofd usque adhuc latentis silentio, vel natura, vel arte laboratas tibi breviter perstringam, liceat harum elenchum enumerare, quas nuperrime Ill.mi D. Comitis Aloysii Marsilii30 Musaeo, cui doctissimus, meique amicissimus D. Victorius Stancarius31fe praeest, communicavi. Ibi etenim quicquid exotici, pretiosique natura parens per totum orbem negligentia quadam, vel provido fatorumff fine dispescuit, miro per compendia collectum ordine, quasi per legum, ac maiestatis nativae gradus, seposito immiscuaefg ruditatis horrore, connectitur; immensosque itinerum labores deludensfh sive maris, sive terrae, sive elementorum omnium partem optimam quaeras, in Marsiliano contracta ad miraculum obstupesces cimeliarchio. 

Haec parvula igitur et ego lubens, sulphureae nempe nostratis minerae seriem, in obsequii tesseram maximo viro dicabam. 

1Sulphuris puri purissimam glebam media marga extractam, ponderis lib. VII. 

2Gypsi fragmentum ponderis lib. VI, cui tanquam ramum aliquod, sulphur nativum adhaeret. 

3Margam scissilem, seu cretam uliginosam lamellatam compactam ex sulphuris cavea. Lib. 3 unc. III.32 

4Minores alias sulphureas glebas, tanquam resinosa terrae tubera, margae adhuc infixas. Lib. V unc. VI. 

5Strias sulphuris vivi,33 aut virginis fere diaphani electriformis gypso inhaerentes, 7] eodemque in segmento alias strias sulphuris communis pallidiusculi margae impactas. Lib. IIII. 

6Terram pinguem arcano sulphure imbutam,fi quae licet glebis, striisve sulphureis careat, igne tamen mollitur, ac in resinosum chalcantosa34 parvafj licet, turgens aciditate liquamenfk tenuatur. Lib. VI. 

7Cretam subalbidam cum tartareis fluoribus, ac sulphure virgine. Lib. IIII unc. X. 

8Elegans purissimi sulphuris glomeramen saxi pallentis figuram referens. Lib. II unc. X. 

9Tria virginei sulphuris fragmina35 colore, ac diaphaneitate succino simillimafl propriae matrici adhaerentia. Unc. VIII. 

10Aliam sulphuris virginis massulam36 terrae subalbae lapidefactae, veluti dicunt tartarissatae implantatam. Unc. X. 

11Terram subalbam pinguem, et veluti butyrosam,37 quam esse prima sulphuris rudimenta censent fossores. Unc. IX. 

12Sulphur evanidum friabile, pulvereum, quod putrefactum diceres, margae inustum, vel forsan nimis antiquum, aut in suis primordiis non bene coctum, aut in aliqua parte deficiens, quicquid nonnulli putentfm auctores. Lib. <I>. 

13Tartareos fluores eleganter sulphureis flosculis respersos. Lib. I. 

14Caput mortuum,38 vel terram multicavam, quasi tophaceam, ex qua sulphur extractum fuit, in ollarum fundo residentem, quae dum exhauritur, si pinguis adhuc accensa est, laborantium vultum cadaverico inficit colore, per multumque temporis adhuc elegantissimis imbuta coloribus splendet. Lib. V. 

15Saxa viva diversae magnitudinis rotunda, quondam fluctibus fortasse agitata, quae adinvicem quasi manu superimposita variis in fodinae locis reperiuntur. Num. III lib. II.-37mm 

16Fuliginem fornacum sulphuris. Lib. V. 

17Flores sulphuris39 ab extimis vasorum externorum parietibus derasos. Unc. VIII. 

18Sulphuris massam ignis torturam experti, ac percolati lib. IIII. 8] 

Partefn montis sinistra,fo quae ad orientem, meridiemque vergit, pyrites40 incertaefp figurae extant quamplurimi,fq sicuti lapilli aereo colore perfusi, ac viscosae, sterilesque margae multicolores, non incerta prorsus subditae mineraefr fs argumenta. Duplexft pyritarum genus, alterum quod in humido frustillatim dissolvitur, nitroque aereo41 facile florescit, alterum aeternum est, ac immutabile.42 Sulcatur huius montis dorsum hinc inde a rivulis, qui omnes in unum rivum, vulgo Riazzone43 coeunt, cuius ripae innumera maris cimelia reservant, antalos44 nempe striatos, leves, asperos, tubulos vermiformes,45 pectines,46 conchas, buccinula, turbines,47 glossopetras, vel canis carcariae dentes (quos nonnulli male sagittas, alii linguas serpentis lapidefactas vocant),48 maris umbilicos,49 cochleas diversiformes, echinosque,50 licet raro, marinos. Haec in arenaceo reperiuntur solo cinerei coloris, atque salsuginoso, palumbis, ovibus, capris, iumentisque omnibus, in cibum licet pessimum, gratissimo. Tota haec regio Gabellumfu usque (Secchia),51 ubi huiuscemodi terra squallet, aequoreis ditescit exuviis. Nunquam lapidefactae salinis immixtae tabulatisfv reperiuntur, imo dum a cadentibus pluviis deraso terrae, sabulique cortice apparent, si diu sole,fw frigoribusque torrescant, friabiles primo evadunt, et tandem calcis adinstar in tenuissimum pollinem fatiscunt.fx Hinc non inconsulto a pharmacopaeo quodam, mefy annuente, pro edulcurantibus, ac sudoriferis febribusfz in malignis, aliisque morbis in quibus acidum praevalet, rustico praescribuntur popello, non improspero sane successu. Sabulum etiam aureis lamellis,ga bracteolisque talciformibus prope eruitur, quod cribratum, et lotum tum ad pulvereas clepsydras, tum ad vitragb expolienda conducit. Carbo petrae, et ligna fossilia tum lapidefacta, tum adhucgc intacta hinc inde excavantur,52 vel in soli ruentis hiatibus deteguntur, ita ut ubique patentia 9] pelagigd trophaea quondam haec montana littora diverberantis appareant. Non diversi enim ingenii, etge structurae sunt, ac nuper a me observati tumuli, et colles, qui non procul ab Adriatico mare, quogf Athesis53 suum pensum vehit, existunt. 

Plurimi in praedictis montium, colliumque fimbriis fontes a Ternario turrente (Tresinaro) usque ad Gabellum,gg amari, salsi, sulphurei, dulces. Facta humoris evaporatione sedimentum dedere primi gypseum, secundi salino-nitrosum,gh sulphureo-terreumgi tertii, candidum veluti terrae virginis ultimi.54 In sanguinis profluviis, diarroeis, vomitu, et similibus morbis non sine laude pauperculis aliquando primas aquas praescripsimus, asthmaticis, cachecticis, hyppocondriacis, ac in verminosa colluvie secundas, et tertias, ac generaliter, ubi aestuatgj sanguis, ultimas. Sic ubique natura parens velificat, et egregia,gk nulliusque impensae praesidia languentibus aegris parat. Uvae, quae in gypseis collibus dulcissimaegl maturescunt, gypsum occulto redolent, quarum vina sensim sine sensu ad nephriticam affectionem deducunt. Sic epotae per longum tempus nonnullae horum collium aquae stomaci dolores, anxietates, obstructiones, virginibus pallores, et alias labes, ac scelera partibus invehunt.gm 

Parte dexteragn montis Gypsi occidentem versus non procul a planitie supra inferiorem clivum expansa, quae vocatur Armorum Pratum (eo quod hispani milites gypsi arcem quondam aggressuri tentoria 10] ibi explicuerunt)55 ex marga minerali subrubra turbinati colles assurgunt,go in quibus marchasitae multae, et maximae molis reperiuntur, nigrique, ac vario colore intertexti durissimi lapilli. Silices etiam subcineritios inveni,56 ignobile quoddam invisum adhuc pyritarum genus, scabro,gp et rimoso cortice indutum, quod chalybe allisum copiosae flammae semina emittit.57gq Sed quod perrarum est, eodem in loco supra lapides ferrugineos mediocris consistentiae striatos, et particulari quodam succo terrestri confectos observabam veluti ungulas lapidefactas arcte adhaerentes modo solitarias, binas modo, modo quaternas, insolenti sane oculorum spectaculo. Quid sint, vel quid fuerint dubius adhuc haereo. Figuramgr aspice secundam.58 Semidigitum59gs longitudine non excedunt in obtusum desinentes mucronem, qui prius fasciola veluti subalbida circundatur. Lineae omnes, veluti longitudinales fibrae a praedicta fascia superficialiter tantum involutae, in fastigium desinunt retusum. Basim versus cavitatulam habent ovalem alte impressam. Si lente aspiciantur admodum rugosae, velutique a vermiculis erosae intus, et in cute apparent. Mucro entaligt canini materiam, ac imaginem refert quodam lucido delinitam plasmate. Per medium scissae, quae fibrae videbantur, lamellae sunt adinvicem inosculatae tartaro lucido, terrestrique ferrumine induratae, atque intersectae, quagu materia sine ordine disposita intus replentur. Saxum, cui adglutinantur friabile admodum est, variisque concretis tartareis lucidis fluoribus figurae diversae hinc inde refertum. Terra rubro-cinerea,gv bracteolis superimpositis, tartaro, salibusque conflatum videtur. Consului nuper magnum naturae magistrum Scheuchzerum dignissimum Academiaegw Anglicanae socium,60 11] binasque unguiculas una cum aliis omnibus rarioribus misi, ut tanto iudice, quid essent, scirem.gx Dubie tamen et ipse phylosophico candore respondit, fassusque est, nunquam similes hactenus vidisse, nec in libris offendisse. Mihi tamen cominus suspicatur posse referri ad ungulas caprarum, et suum fossiles Column. Aquat. et Terres. p. 48,61 vel ad ichtyodontas cuspidatas plectronarias,gy seu plectronitas, quorum aliquot in suo Lithoph. Britt. delineat Tab. 16, atque describit p. 63, 66.62 

Cornicula pariter non longe in rivulo quandoque deteguntur, etgz eadem sunt, eodem adstipulante clarissimo viro, quae ad fungitas refert Rob. Plot Nat. Hist. of Oxfor. Cap. 5, p. 189, ac depingit Tab. XII, n. 3, 4,63 quorum similia se ex Agro Bononiensiha obtinuisse monet,hb taliaque alicubi etiam offendisse sub titulo caryophylli marini, sedhc loci non recordatur.64 Nec dubitat, quin et haec ad marina reduci debeant (Fig. 3).65 Haec pariter delineata nuper videbam in Augustini Scillaehd Messanensis libro, cui titulus La vana speculazione disingannata dal senso.66 

Primus hiche collium ambitus plurimohf abundat, ut innuebam gypso spato, lapide speculari pulcherrimo vulgo scaiola, arabico etiam lapide ebori simillimo,hg calcario caementario siliceo, arenosohh tophaceo vivo, marmoreo, undoso flaviusculis scilicet variis coloribus elegantissime picto, quorum nonnulli in mea Lapidum Marmorumque Serie non infimum obtinent musei locum.67 

Lapis, seu alumen speculare scandianense, quod alii selenitem, et talcum vocant,68 ut plurimum figura trapeziades dici potest, quadrilateris irregularibus, seu trapetiishi planis terminatum. Misit ad me supradictus Scheuchzerus 12] lapidem specularem, seu selenitem rhomboidalem subobscure diaphanam ex Monte Gamor Abbatiscellanorum,69 cuius meminit Specim. Helv. Lithograph. p. 49,70 cui repetundarum loco non solum nostratem misi, sed alium ex Agro Vicentino suo tempore longe minorem, sed lucidiorem, qui pene paralellopipedum sex paralellogramis rhomboidalibus terminabatur. Aliashj quoque tessellas eiusdem indolis rubellas cubicas cum angulis inaequalibus ex Agro Rianensi71 misi, quas pergratas, quoniam rariores, nec sibi hactenus visas habuit. De hoc lapide nuper scripsit Dialogum inter Plinium, et Salmasium,72 quo ostendit eundem esse cum Androdamante Plinii Lib. XXXVII C. 10, ubi ait Androdamas argenti nitorem habet, ut adamas, quadrata, semperque tessellis similis. Magi putant nomen impositum ab eo, quod impetus hominum, et iracundias domet.73 Dicavit foetum hunc, ut ipse ait, insolitum favente Minerva prognatum Illustri Academiae Inquietorum Bononiae,74 ut specimen haberet genii sui exotici. 

Sed altius ascendamus, amice, ingratosquehk fines relictos a tergo salutemus.hl Post quinquehm circiter a Scandiano lapides asperrima, et sterilishn terrae facies infra montium ruinas inexpectato horrore quosdamho terret, quosdam delectat. Infernum monticolae vocant, non improprio naturae loci vocabulo. Praeruptae tumulorum ambages vorticoso, et inaccessibili circuitu in praecipites abyssoshp desinunt, vix sine timore oculis ipsis pererrandos. Nulla plantula, nec muscus quidem, scabros, ac inamoenos cortices induit, soli sterilitati sacros. Fastigiata ubiquehq parvula iuga, creta adeoque viscosa, coacta,hr et 13] compacta, ut a pluviis cadentibus vix paucis sulcis annorum gyro perarentur. Auget triste spectaculum rudis colorum varietas, quae diversis, alternatisque veluti zonis nigris, rubeis, ferrugineis, flaviusculis, albis modo striatim, modo cochleatim, modo undatim dispositishs clivos omnes tumultuarie fasciat, et exornat.75 Nigri, ac durissimi lapides hinc inde erumpunt,ht qui scissihu plerumque micas aureashv in suo sinu recondunt.76 Hinc sub inospito illo squallore mineram aliquam auream, veluti thesaurum condidisse naturam nonhw immerito suspicantur nonnulli. 

Altera ex parte septentrionem versus transhx Ternarium Torrentemhy aliud non iniucundum philosophorumhz oculis oblectamentum. Ebullit, pallet, mugit solumia perpetuo fumans, ac fluxile. Salsamib (salsa) vocant locum illum incolae Querzolae ob caementum salsum, quod coquit, et expuit illa naturae perennis, utic ita dicam, et incombustibilis olla.77 Diceres accensum continuo latitare ignem, cum nocturno praecipue tempore, quando furit, una cum saxis, fluidoque limo flammas eructet. Ter centum montisid pedes circiter occupat, sed fervoris locus non ubique turget, et sedem saepe mutat.78 Proiecimus saxa, quae non sine profundo strepitu descenderunt in baratrum. Interdum et animalia minora,ie et incautos absorbuit boves, quos postea coctos, absumptos, et fere exosses evomuit. Cum ultra solitumif acrius mugit, tuto futuram pluviam praenunciat, sonusque bombardarum boatui aemulus etiam ad propinquiores terras, oppida, et Regium usque interdum extenditur. Tremit 14] quandoque circumundique per milliaria quassata tellus, vidimusque largis hiatibus semidirutam domum secreto huius impulsu. Brevi contrahamus omnia stylo. Parvulam Aetnam ridens diceres, grandiaig si paucis assimilare licet. Et haec enimih suo modo tonat, suo modo fulminat,ii ac ruinasij minatur. Et haec 

Interdum lapides, avulsaque viscera montis
erigit eructans, liquefactaque saxa sub auras
cum gemitu glomerat, fundoque exaestuat imo.79
 

Non insalubris eiusdem aqua punctuoik scaturiens armentis in potu gratissima, multisque morbis solamen a viscoso, praecipue frigidoque humore nascentibus.80il Lutum eiusdem salsum tumores antiquos egregie resolvit, scabies delet, stagnans serum potenter exsiccat, nervis contractis ex cruda lympha vel synovia crassa prodest,81 et crura aedematosa reliquis surda remediis recreat. Rustici erisipellati etiam eumim imponunt non sine fructu, maculasque tandem exteriores praecipue oleosas bibax illa terra delet etc.82 Non procul petroleum e radice montis stillitat,in sed inobservatum, lutoque immixtum dispergitur. 

Multa in vicino torrente qui Fassanus dicitur83 saxa alba sylvis, arborum ramis, serpentiformibus gyris aliisque lusibus subfusce depictis reperiuntur, qui referri possuntio ad lapides arborinos, dendritas,ip vel etiam phycites forte Plinii Lib. XLVII C. 10,84 de quo fusius Scheuchzerus meus disseruit in Epist. Dissert. de dendritarum generatione inserta Ephem. An. 1697 et 98, Append.85 Vidimus, et multos lapides, qui vulgo aquiloni dicuntur ovalis figurae, marchesitas plurimas diversae indolis. 

Nec globuli lapidei, quos non procul inveni, inglorio silentio involvendi sunt. Fatigarunt et isti, fatigantque eruditos scriptorum calamos. Candidi sunt, lucentes, atque adinvicem novo superadveniente glutine ferruminati. Sunt et isti verus stalagmites, de quibus B. de Boot L. II C. 238,iq et pisolithus, cuius meminit idem Cap. seq. 239.86 Consuli pariter de hoc lapide possunt Gesner. De figur. lap. p. 71, 118, 121,87 Ferrant. Imperat. Histor. Natur. p. 588, p. 55, 99.88 Huc referri etiam 15] queuntir pisa illa in Agro Bethlehemitico reperiunda, de quibus Monconys. Voyag. T. I. pag. m. 313.89 De his pisiformibus concretionibus, earumque origine si sermo sit, putant multi (sed falso) esse ova piscium in massas conglutinata, et petrificata, alii guttas purissimi succi lapidescentis coactas, et deinde adinvicem novo tartareo fluore congestas, quales in Thermis Bohemiae Carolinis90 id genus lapidis ex guttis concrescere vulgo dicunt.91 

Balistam proximo mane tetigimus (Valestra),92 quae celebris adhuc ob virgiliana carmina, quae saxei montis limbo insculpta, et ob temporis iniuriam fere erosa vix leguntur. 

Monte sub hoc lapidum tegitur Balista sepultus.
Nocte dieque tutum carpe viator iter.93
 

Erat ille ludimagister, sed famosissimus latro, qui nomen Patriae, et cui Virgilius, ut fama est, epitaphium dedit.94 

Fere totus saxeus est mons cum stratis fere perpendicularibus, hinc exsuccus, et nativis fontibus vacuus. Inosculantur se adinvicem ingentia saxa turres altissimas, et scopulosis minaces aemulantia,it meridiemque versus aliquantulum antrosa.95 Firmiter incolae credunt ibi latitare thesaurum, multique saepe sacrilego murmurarunt ore, ut ipsum eruerent. Non iniucundam etiam narratiunculam effutiunt, quae apud me bella fabella est, apud bardos illos rusticos memorabilis historia. Liceat, amice carissime, sepositoiu parumper rerum physicarum pondere, severitatem naturae interserta lepiditate mulcere. Arabat,iv inquiunt, in viciniis montis 16] colonus terram, dum bini advenae nigris insidentes equis ipsum interpellarunt, ubi Mons Balistae, quo protenso licet digito demonstrato, sibi eum comitem voluerunt. Ut perventum est ad saxum,iw ubi specus sine postibus olim hiabat, inducitix statim viso non amplius limen ostio, quodiy ut recluderent, claves inter vicinas vepres reconditas secura manu extraxere. Remotis pessulis, primisque foribus laxatis, novum ostium ferreum apparuit,iz quo pariter recluso, in porticum situ, et fuligine tetra squallidam derivabant, inde in amplum cubiculum fornice scabro, pendulisque tophisja minax, ac dubia luce teterrimum. Ibi aureum erigebaturjb simulacrum, numinumque idola gemmis, et auro nitentia, quorum in ambitu stabant urnae vitreae, atque marmoreae humanis ossibus ustis, et cinereojc pulvere luridae, variisque attonito rustico characteribus ignotis insculptae. Ad maioris simulacri pedes plumbeum iacebat scrinium, cuius distinctis in loculis phyalae, pyxidulaequejd servabantur variis liquoribus, ac arcanis pulveribus refertae. Lychnus etiam prolymyxus accensus adhuc, sed fumosus magis, quam lucidus novumje terrorem quassatis pectoribus ingeminabat. Nec deerant aliis in arculis nummi, aurea monilia, gemmarumque grande patrimonium. Tolle, dixerunt advenae, tolle quantum auri tuam possit implere famem,jf primique, exemplo viam monstrante, sacculosjg equorum dorso imponendos gravarunt. Sequutus licet trepidans exemplum, sese quantum potuit, stipatis ubique nummis, implevit, spe 17] concepta, ventura nocte, redeundi cum vectorio curriculo, et sacras plutoni gazas, et regale, ac memorandum annalibusjh ruris depopulandiji thesaurum. Interea discesseruntjj advenae, clausisque ostiis,jk claves rursus intra proximum vepretum iecere.jl Tunc avarus agricola curarum plenus, animoque magna spe saturo, nullis observantibus, summoque noctis silentio redivit ad asperum clavium reconditorium, manuque callosa spretis spinarum aculeis proiectas quaerebat claves. Sed, dum iam intra volam credebat,jm viperas in funiculum contortas, ac immane sibilantesjn strinxit, spe delusus inani 

gelidus perjo ima cucurrit ossa tremor.96
 

Transivit vicissimjp in metum stupor, in stuporem metus, vixque vacabat timere miranti, aut admirari timenti. Vivunt adhuc talis rustici nepotes, inter Balistenses ditiores, quosjq quoniam suis arrisit fortuna negotiis,jr ingenio, et industria caeteris eminentibus,js arte quorundam externorum necromantica divitiae partae creduntur. Sedjt ne nimis extra oleas divagemur,97ju e diverticulo rursus in viam.98 

Ad Quarae thermas,jv jw vel ut antiqui ad aquarium balneum sequenti die appulimus, locum antiquitus medicatis aquis tota Europajx celeberrimum, nunc ipsis conterraneis vix notum.99 Iacobus Vaccarius in Antidotario 18] suo harum mentionem facit,100 Dominusque Fulvius Azzarius in Historiis Regiensibus medicosjy Romanos multijz has pendere scribit, quoniam suo aevo,ka ut Romam adveherentur pro desperatis sanandis aegris, curabant.101 Nunc ingloriae clinicis etiam nostratibus ignotae sordescunt. Quasi et thermae habeant sua sydera, et adversi fati sentiant iras.kb Sic etiam tot aliae priscis saeculis cultae, nunc obsitae limo, aliae obscurae nunc spectatissimae. Nec virtutes thermarum Quarae, quas sub nomine Balnei Aquariani Gabriel Faloppi descripsit,102 uti emarcuerunt senio confectae.kc Quales antiqui patres has descripserunt, tales adhuc inveni. Grata nempe salsedine affectae, frigidiusculaekd pauco volatilis sulphuris odore praeditaeke (quem falso nonnulli camphorae attribuerunt), colore pellucidae. Hinc eas pro deobstruendis obcaecatis internis canalibus, pro liquorum amurcis, crudisque saburris a corpore deradendis, pro vermibus intestinalibus extinguendiskf efficacissimas existimamus. Ita ventriculo effoeminato, pectori anhaeloso, flatulentiae,kg hypocondriae, colicae torminosae, sterilitati a lympha viscosa, capitis vertigini, atque dolori a repigrato polyposo praecipue sanguine, rheumatismis a glutinoso sero mederi, aliisque morbis a causa, uti dicunt scholae, frigida dependentibus, indubium est.103 Mutinensis Fallopius de his non siluit, ut innuebam licet circakh scaturiginis situm aki vero aberrans.104 In ripis Draconis105 ipsas descripsit, et e ripakj dextera Doli106 scatent. Torrens vicinus, uterque rapax, ac praeceps, sed e diversis cryptis origo. Meruerunt et exterorum laudatores 19] calamos, quae nostratibus ipsis ignotae tandem obmutuerunt. Septentrionemkk versus e saxorum montis hyatibus erumpentes per caecos tubulos in craterem, deinde intra marmoreum vas, quod adhuc ab iniuria temporis superest, derivabant. Solido plumbatis cardinibus operculo, pessulisque quondam firmato relligiose custodiebantur, indeque ex inferno foramine inkl substratum torrentem prolabebantur. Scala lapidi sculpta, ut facilis ad locum descensus,km adhuc visitur. Caeterum nec amplius in antiquum vas elutriant, nec ab advenis recollectae ad peregrina loca feruntur. Lapidibus, luto, sabulakn repletum est receptaculum, errant, quo libet, armentis nunc solum, ovibus, capellisque in potu gratissimae. 

Tranatoko torrente Rubianam107 tetigimus, ubi antiquissimum, et marmoreum non ignobile templum ab illustri Matylde108 constructum, si colonis fides, erigitur. Hic frigidissimi, ac limpidissimi fontes ab una parte, ab altera foetentes sulphurei,kp fumosi, tepidi scatent sine usu, sine nomine. Parumkq distant et alii non ingrata salsedine conspicui, sed villicis solum, et pecori noti etc. Ibikr chirurgorum est non obscura familia, Raspona dicta pro venenatis praecipue viperarum morsibus sanandis celebris. Psyllorum109 enim more a quibus originem trahere venditant inflictum venenum avide absorbent, et propria saliva laethalia lavant vulnera, ex quibus salus tutissima, si statim demorsis occurrant. Macula serpentiformis omnibus 20] ab hac stirpe natis super humeros insculpta visitur, quae verno praecipue tempore coloratior rudem viperini glomerisks effigiem representat. Denudatis unius humeris hanc curiosis oculis, manibusque, ad examenkt revocavi quae an esset nativum stygma, an factitium, adhuc haereo. 

Superato montis clivo meridiem versus Vitriolae tinctorios fontes, tanquam paratos a natura gratuitos infectores, admirati sumus. Hinc non inconsulto sagaces antiqui Vitriolae nomen ruri indiderunt, ob vitriolicas, aut atramentosas aquas, quibus abundat.110 Obstupesces, amice, si Boeoticos amnes111 aemulaturos fontes prodo. Obscuriku sunt, quia nullus adhuc scriptor montana nostra dignatus est delibare miracula. Oves ad quasdam prodigiosas lymphas nigrae tendant, albae discedant, hic albae vestes immerguntur, extrahuntur nigrae contrario eventu, aequali miraculo. Non spernenda beneficentiakv paupertati sylvestris populi sine impensis duraturos colores Magna Mater impertiens consulit, locorumque inclementiam rerum raritate compensat. Emergunt e prati fundo Draconem versus, orasque fontium superando per declive solum in dicti torrentis alveum devolvuntur. Horum aqua limpida est, saporis omnis expers, terram tamen, lacustresque herbas, quas lambit, flavo-ferrugineo colore inficit. Innatat ipsi, telae adinstar subtilissimae, materia levis iridis colores aemulans, quae exsiccata pollinem aureolum dabat. Lutum in imis nigerrimum est, aptissimumque tinctorio operi. In his medicatis fontibus agrestis populus pannos lineos, 21] lanasque nigrat, non sine tamen praecedenti aliqua preparatione, ut intimius saturentur. Prius igitur tingendas vestes in aqua simplici una cum castanearum iulis, vel earundem phyliris,kw sive libris coquunt, et macerant, deinde hoc simplici magisterio paratas per horas 24 in luto fontium immersas abscondunt, quo bis, vel ter repetito nil nigrius apparet. Neque praetereundum est, quod vestes ita infectae diutius durant, quam non infectae, contrario prorsus exitu, ac illiskx accidit, quae a nostris tinctoribus communi methodo tinguntur. Erodit scilicet infusum atrox vitriolum occulto mucrone telarum filamenta, quaeky temporis progressu etiam in arculis reservata sensim truncantur. Cur autem infusum, non cognatis aquis innatum, sive furtim liquatum ita operetur, tibi cogitandum relinquo. Si ziziphinumkz colorem expetunt, pannos prius radicibus mori,112 sive salicis alpinaela folio alni rotundo,113 vel aliarum etiam salicum fluminibus innascentium decoquunt, deinde modo dicto immergunt. Alios etiam eruunt, ac eruerentlb colores, si diligens aliquis arcanorum naturae scrutator plura sedulo celebraret experimenta. Nondumlc ld usque adhuc in usum venere medicum, sed nullus dubito, quod in omnibus illis morbis, in quibus aliae aquaele vitriolicae praescribuntur, non conveniant, imo aliis palmam non praeripiant. Vitriolum enim satis blandum, ac fere innocenslf in suo sinu fovent,lg non asperum, non fixum, non rigidum, non erosivum, hinc et renibus, et stomaco, et hepati aestuoso, et sanguini fervido, etlh utero laxo, aliisque corporis partibus suo tono languentibusli auxiliari posse, minimelj dubitamus. Si rursus aliquando pedem Patriae figam, eas experiri gestit animus, rogantes interimlk tot praestantissimosll medicos concives meos, ut experientiaslm celebrare non dedignentur, sibique famam aegris salutem, Patriae utilitatem asciscent.ln XIII.r] XIII.v] 

Draconemlo ingressi propinquum, torrentem scilicet illum infidum, saxisque ingentibus asperum, cui quolibet anno sorslp adversa aliquem victimat, invenimus. Colores lapidum huius diversi, rubei nempe, virides, nigri, flavi, albi in glareoso fundo quasi tessulatim dispositilq ad amussim maculosa draconis tergora aemulabantur. Hinc fortasse nomen, praeter serpentinos hinc inde gyros, reptatumque sursum versum, ac semperlr oblique fluentem. 

In nulla marmora ab hoc Medolam,114 cuius limbum torrens dictus undis lambit, accessimus.ls 22] Arx eratlt antiqua, inaccessibilis hostibus, supra saxum horrendum, scopulumvelu rubro-livescentemlv posita, quae vicinis omnibus iura dabat. 

E Medola regea Monte Fiorino.115lw
 

Nunc exigua priscae gloriae fundamina rimis minacibus irreparabilia supersunt. Hinc, atque hinc vasti montes, quorum dexter fusca quadam rubedine perfusus, scruposus, sterilis, mineralibus exhalationibus torrefactus apparet. Multas pyrites argenteas, aeneasque invenimus, multosque lapides viridi colore perfusos,116 quorum lateribus materia quaedam flaviuscula, succini adinstar, adhaerescebat. Concreti cautes tartaro, minimislx lapillis globulosis, mineramque redolentibus refertily ubique solum exasperabant. Fodinae initium sub praerupto saxo hiabat, ex qua auream, vel argenteamlz venam exhaurire credentes, crudam, solum sterilemque cupream (uti referunt) inveneram.ma Parte laeva latus montis non adeo immensis saxismb firmatum a subterraneismc erodentibus aquis evisceratum in praeceps quondam ruens Medolae templum,117 in inferna planitie positum, domosque inhumavit. Huiusmodi frequentes ubique apparent ruinae, ex quibus divulsis, ut ita dicam,md montium costis,me deiectisque rupibusmf summa decrescunt, ima surgunt, locorumque faciemg mutata, quaerit quaqua calcatur, sese antiqua natura, nec invenit. Ab aquis scilicet, nivibusque solutis a supremis vicini Apenini verticibus per tabulatorummh scissuras ruentibus adeo lubrica terrae macerantur, rodunturquemi fundamenta, ut tandem ab ingenti superincumbente pressura laxentur. Vocant has incolae salacte, sive lavine,118 quas praecipue, ubi fontium scaturigines extillant, nec strata lapidea subsunt passim vidimus. 23] 

Summum tandem Apeninummj montes, quos antiqui Leti,mk Divi Pellegrini Alpes119 vocantml recentium nonnulli, post improbos labores, ac salebrosum iter ascendimus, Divique corpus120 adhuc marcori resistens veneratimm sumus. Quot interea catharactas inaccessas,mn quot arcanosmo in montibus ipsis vallium recessus, quot abrupta rupium supercilia, clivosos tramites, impervios calles observabamus? Adhuc Augusti mensis aestuans,mp nostrisque regionibus torridus, et tamen multis in locis saeva hyems nive, geluque perhorrescebat. Congestae enim, ut plurimum per multos annos nives, vix aliquando urente acrius Syrio, flanteve austro tabescunt. Rara securi violatur annosa fagus, aeternummq dumeta rigescunt, et ingentes ubique exuberant umbrae. Hinc iuge frigus, perpetui flatus, aeris ardor ignotus. Tunc mecum ipse fontium, fluminumque originem altius recolens tacitus mussitabam, hic inobservata fontium perennium, ut ita dicam, corda, hic prima fluminum latent ubera. Udomr semper omnia squallent solo, carent fine stillantesms aquae, et antrosa Alpium viscera machinas hydrophylaces121mt aemulantia diu duraturum sugunt, ac servant liquorem. Hic castella non desunt, cisternae perpetuae,mu et aeterna tument aquarum reservatoria. 

Nec locus ingenio est, oculi te iudice vincunt.122
 

Arbitrabamur etiam, uti Cyrus apud Xenophontem, maiora, dum videbamus minora.123 Audebat enim tunc animus penitiora scrutari, et immensam aquarum molem a subterraneis gurgitibus absorptam per obscura viarum sequi. Non enim Scultemnamv (Panaro),124 nec Gabellusmw (Secchia), nec ignobiliores alii torrentes, non 24] fontium perennium raritas ab Apeninis emergens tantis nivium, aquarumque machinamentis respondent. Reconditum abyssis suis flumen efformant, quod montium minorum radices praeterfluensmx post tenebrosum emensum iter, laxatis tandem repagulis, hinc inde variis e tanquammy oris humilioribus egurgitans sui signa prodit, dum interim fluentum maius per arenosum, glareosumque stratum furtim praeterlabens Admirandam Mutinensibus Fontibus Originem praebet, de qua tam erudite, ac ingeniose clarissimusmz Ramazzinus olim collega meusna semper colendus alio licet innixus fundamento disseruit.125nb Eo magis ad hoc credendum cogor, quo magis fontes, omnesque perennes quinc in ultimis Furni Volastri Alpibus126 copiosiores fluunt, ad trutinam revoco. Ibi enim minor nivium copia ob maris vicini teporem, ibi minor ambitus, immo occidentem, idest mare versus, fere semper nive carent. Sed quoniam ibi maximus minerarum proventus, de quibus postea, montiumque strata fere ut plurimum orizontaliter posita, fereque tota lapidosa rigescunt, ideo sequitur, quod tabefactae nives, aquarumque fluxus in eorundem visceribus vix haerent, ac ab interpositis revolutae crateribus vel nutrimentum mineris ministrant, vel e rimulis sub imagine fontium plorant, ac perpetuos omnes, iugesque fontes efformant. Non enim istis ob densam stratorum, ac minerarum compagem, et situm, usque ad imas, et inconspicuas montium radices descendere datum 25] est, ut in Alpibus D. Pellegrini contingit. Diversum ibi crustarum ingenium, diversa positio. Terra multa, sabulum bibax, laxior structura cadentes aquas, niviumque fluores devorat, ac in imas Alpium radices ad caecum efformandum flumen devehit. Hinc passim montium ipsorum horribiles lapsus, ac per plures quandoque lapides fluxae eorundem laterum ruinae pedibus ipsis trepidantibus observantur. Ex quibus coniicere gestit animus, cur hic abscondantur aquae, ibi exantlentur, cur hic rari appareant fontes aeterni, fluminumque rarior cursus,nd ibi utrumque luculentius effluat. Haec enim, me cogitante, fere sola in hoc saltem nostro terrarum gremione aquarum est circulatio. E caelo in terram, e terra ad mare: rursusque e mari ad caelum, a caelo in terram. E caelo scilicet fluentes aquas cavernosi montes, terraeque bibulae absorbent, fluxaenf ut plurimum, per obvias absorptae, perng obscuras vias in mare devolvuntur. Ex hoc,nh et ab illis attenuatae rursus in nubes ascendunt, ex nubibus denuo descendunt, perpetua fluxilis elementi, incrementisque nunquam fallentibus, circulatione.127 

Sed te ridentem video, amice carissime, quod parvo ex itinere, minimisque observatiunculis tam immensa metiar. Quod non amplectar vulgatam, Italisque praecipue ingeniis alte inhaerentem Cartesii,128 aliorumque opinionem de fontium, fluminumque perennium origine ac eorundem circulatione, de qua tam erudite praeclarissimus tuus etiam Lanzonus disseruit.129ni Quodnj nempe haec, 26] et illi a mari,nk temporarii autem a pluviis, ac liquefactis nivibus ortum trahant. Non tamen in magnorum virorum pretium, auctoritatemque peccare contendo, si tanta nostris solis in regionibus quaerens ambigo, non ut ambigam, sed ut firmer. Vetus est (ait Platonis Sophista), omniumque communis sententia, si quis ea, quae magna sunt, recte transigere velit, in parvis quibusdam prius illa, facilioribusque, quam in maximis considerare debere.130 Cum de veritate agitur, non quis, autnl quot dixerint, sed quam bene et novi videndum. Non meum etenimnm calamum per universum terrarum orbem extendo. Ad nostros tantum fontes, ad exigua nostra flumina torrentesque minimas observatiunculas contraho. Forsan 

…alid ex alio clarescet…
Ita res accendunt lumina rebus.131nn
 

Quid tu, vir doctissime, qui tam claro polles ingenio, de istis cogites, scire peropto. Refrica, precor, non callosum adhuc ulcus, et me vel fac doctiorem, vel silere in posterum iube. Tu enim ex illis non es, qui veritatem ad suum arbitrium temperet, ac inter mendacia quicquid palato non arriserit, reponat. Iniurius est in homines, in universamno naturam, in Deumque scriptor ille, qui phylautia detentus aliorum omnia deridet, seque solum ad tacitam, fumosamque lucernam cuncta Caeli, Terraeque negotia videre credit. Ruditatem in omnibus, sed in istis praecipue fateor meam. Quid sentias etiam, 27] ut aperias,np quaeso, de Aquae dulcis fonte, Venetiis, mirante populo, dum Canalem Regium excavabant, exantlato, uti te per litterasnq certiorem feci;132 quid de prosilientibus aquis etiam dulcibus e fundo maris, observante Simone Portio Neapolitano, quando passibus fere bis centum in celebri Puteolana conflagratione recessit?133 A continenti per secretos canales aquas dulces illapsas auguror, eo modo, quo per apertos, ob soli humilitatem, in mare decurrunt. Flumina enim inconspicua, caecique rivuli per obliqua cretae, saxorumque dorsa e supremis montibus, non apertonr solum, sedns obscuro, coactoque per angustias itinere usque in intimos pelagi thalamos penetrantesnt quandoque emergunt. Quomodo enim mare in se revolutum, quibus, ut ita dicam, sacculis colatoriis portento simillimis, qua necessitate amaras exuit aquas, ut rursus easdem subito dulces absorbeat? Te etiam non latet, quod via filtrationis aquarum maris, ut dulcescant, ambigua est, et nostris experimentis fallax.nu Per nullum namque sabulum, per nullum marmor,nv nec per vasa etiam fornacum igne densata percolati latices marini salsedinem dediscunt. Aut cum aqueis particulis connubium salis adeo arctum est, ut nisi per placidam evaporationem disiungi queat, aut figura, molesque talis, ut pori bibentes aquas salibus etiam ingurgitentur. Vidimus etiam aridissima aestate transacta Clodiae nostrae, Liburnique puteosnw 28] hortenses aequori proximos arefactos, licet maris superficies esset longe eminentior, quam ima puteorum profunditas. Argumento scilicet indubio,nx quod praefati putei aquas a continenti, non a pelago mutuentur. Aliany etiam, praeter ea, quae D. Perauult,134 Casparquenz Bartholinus,135 aliique transalpini exposuerunt paulatim concoquo, tua felicissima mente in posterum vel ulterius digerenda, vel expungenda.oa 

Ast incepti itineris vota sequamur, quidque denuo curiosis oculis devorabam faxo ut intelligas. Saepe videbam in substratis agrisob cadentes imbres, et humida, spissaque caligine caelum triste, meoc sudo aere fruente. Mihi aliquid tunc videbatur, habere caput non solum inter, sed supra nubes, et audire subiectaod pedibus tonitrua, infimumque Iovem, ut ita dicam, fulmina vibrantem. Videbam,oe et immersas nubibus ipsis regiones integras, vastamque veluti nebulosam planitiem ad amussim orizontaliter positam, cuius variis in locis modoof unus vortex, modo alter ex improviso contortus hiabat. Tunc obscuro miscebatur caelum murmure, raucoque nostris auribus sono tonabat. Exog quo tonitru, ac vorticosi fulminis generationem, fragorisque promiscui causam quasi fidis oculis exhauriebam. Non etenim ibi fabulosa antiparistasis136 ultimis cogebat ignem frigoribus, sed omnia ex lege motus, corporumque contrario nisu prementium, ventorum etiam flabellis urgentibus exoriebantur. 29] 

In istis Alpibus saepe crystalloides, et crystalli reperiuntur, quarum color in nonnullis subniger, figura mirabilis. Nemo enim esset, qui laboratas arte non crederet, cum quaedam in medio sui circumambiantur elegantissima fascia ex sex paralellogrammis rectangulis, quae terminatur utrinque a tribus triangulis equicruris, seu isoselis, quam figuram tamen nuper etiam observabam, licet non adeo exactam, in quibusdam hyacintis boemicis.137oh Adsunt et crystalloides partibus constantes, quarum aliae paralellopipedam figuram, aliae vero ad prismaticam accedere videntur, sicuti aliae, quae ad tetraedricam, aliae ad octaedricam vergunt. Uteros etiam crystallinos ab Euganeis non multum abludentes,138oi nonnullosque a Ferrante Imperato delineatos139 inveniebam, quae omnia naturam geometram, quandamque in istis a substrato fluore suboscuram vegetationem demonstrant. Ultimae enim crystallorum striaeoj in hoc implantantur, velutique diaphanae radiculae videntur nutrimentum aliquando absorbuisse.140 Misit nuper huiusmodi cimelia pro ditando meo museolo toties laudatus Scheuchzerus, misit, et crystallum hexagonam magnitudinis conspicuae, cui mira viridis chrysocollacea141 respersa est ex Alpibus Uriis,142 aliam pariter hexagonam herbaceo colore saturam,143 aliam helveticam diaphanam, calcarium marmor sulphuratum, cui fluores insident crystallini Brugis Argoviae,144 selenitem crystalloidem candidum ex Monte Pilati Lucernensium,145 fluoremque tandem crystallinum trigonum saccharum candidumok referentemol exom on oo 30] Lapidicina Oniagensi,146 de quo in Specimine Lithographiae Helveticae pag. 24.147 Ex Rheticis etiam Alpibus148 aurei coloris, et egregie diaphanam crystallum149 servo, sicuti varios fluores crystallinos guttatim supra calcidonium crudum respersos subobscuri rubicundi coloris ab Euganeis depromptos, diversosque naturae lusus ex calcidonio,150 et crystallis implicitos, herbasque crystallis ipsis, ut muscae in succinis incarceratas. Sed de his alias. 

Emenso primo Apeninorum iugo, rivuli, atque torrentes contrario cursu, diviso veluti aquarum imperio, Mare Tyrrhenum versus descendunt.op oq Tuncor oculis obiicitur Caferoniana Provincia frequentibus oppidis, vicisqueos populosa, benigniori fruens caelo, terraeque uberiori fertilitate laetissima. Arcent enim septentrionales gelidissimos halitus praealta Apeninorum dorsa, quae furentem ventorum rabiem in se recipiunt, et frangunt. Sub imo montis limbo Castrum novum151ot visitur, provinciae caput, tum nascente, tum vesperascente die nebulis, ut plurimum obductum. Si montes enim montibus, si colles collibus iungantur per flexuosa intervalla saepe mephitis exhalationum urbes incommodat. Hinc etiam saepius febricitat septicollis Roma,ou dicebat Celsus.152 

Mellifluus noster Testi praedictum locum, ut otio beato, musisque aptissimum ita eleganter descripsit.ov 

Qui, dove argenteo il corso
la Turrita discioglie, e seco viene
a maritarsi innamorato il Serchio,
e sul meriggio al dorso
del gran Padre Apenin opache scene
di rintrecciati faggi alzan coperchio;
merto mio no, soverchio
favor del gran Francesco153 ozio mi diede,
e fe’ ne’ regni suoi regnar mia fede.
Qui lieto vivo, e mentre
di lui canta il mio plettro, Eco da lunge
ossequiosa il suo bel nome alterna:
pensier, che si concentre
a intorbidarmi il cor qua su non giunge,
e seren parmi il ciel, quando ancor verna. XIV.r]
Temer di spada esterna
questi monti non san: fiumi innocenti
portano al mar gli immacolati argenti.
Con voce bellicosa
curvo oricalco a travagliar non desta
l’inerme abitator d’umil capanna:
de la greggia lanosa
i mariti rival con dura testa
solo a pugnar tal volta amor condanna,
e la stridente canna
del pastorel, che non lontan rimbomba
ai cozzanti guerrier serve di tromba.
I preziosi umori,
di cui ferito il nobil seno allaga
negli arabici boschi arbor sovrano
perdon gli usati onori
qui, dove occhio mortal uscir di piaga
stilla non vede mai di sangue umano;
se pur incauta mano
non trafigge talor d’acuta spina
pungente spoglia di castagna alpina.
Maestre de’ pensieri
rupi per nostro esempio al Ciel sospinte,
selve, in onta de’ lussi, erme, et inculte,
oh come volentieri
tra i vostri orror le sue speranze estinte
l’ambizioso cor lascia sepulte,
che pur, che l’alma esulta
de la sua dolce libertà contento
fo di tutte mie glorie erede il vento.154ow XIV.v] XV.r] XV.v]ox
 

Multa sane de hac regione vera, multa poetarum more figmenti, atque adulationis fuco delinit. De hac nosoy quoque minus eleganti, sed sincero magis calamo in rudem recollectaoz fasciculum nonnulla quae ad hominum historiam etiam extra meum scopum dicere, neque inutile, neque supervacaneum forsan existimamus, cum ab antiquis geographis, atque historicis vix delibatam, a recentioribus aut nominetenus tantum indicatam, aut, quasi obscura regiuncula, oscitanter praetermissam, non sine indignante stomaco reperiamus. 

Dicitur vulgo Garfagnana, latine Caferoniana ab Oppido Caferoniano nomen mutuata, in Tirenis stationibus, agrisve sito Lucam inter, ac destructam Lunam.155 Ita vocabatur illud a Feronia nemorum, libertorum, fertilitatisque, ac deliciarum dea, quam Iunonem arbitrabantur, sicuti Gyral. Synt. de Diis Gent. Lib. 1 scriptum reliquit.156 Originem altam traxerunt incolae Caferonianae a dispersis, fatoque hinc inde pulsis Tuscorum, Graecorum, Romanorumque reliquiis, non sine populi feroces adhuc genios foventis laude. Tuncque primum fuit, cum mundus in romanae dominationis, idest humani generis conversione penitus intremuit, omnique genere discriminum civilibus, terrestribus, ac navalibus bellis omne imperii corpus agitatum est, ut Luc. Flor. Epit. testatur. Truculentissimas Marii, Scillae, triumque Monarcorum Lepidi, Marci Antonii, atque Octaviani proscriptiones XVI.r] fugiebant,157 cuipa non leve rationis momentum addunt fundamenta, ac rudera multarum arcium in summis collium scopulorumque verticibus adhuc extantia, in quibus auri, argenti, metallique romana numismata passim excavantur.pb Antiqua etiam adhuc vigent nomina Silani, Silici, Silicagnani, Silicani, Trasilici, Roggii, Camporosciani, Cassiani, Cassinelli, Caesaranae, Brutiani, Petrognani, Niciani, et similia, cum castra,pc ac arces istae fuerint olim, ut incolae tradunt, aedificatae a Scilla, eiusque sequacibus, a Rossio, Cassio, Caesare, Bruto, Petronio, Nicia, aliisque nobilissimis Romanis a fortuna susque, deque perculsis. 

Nec scriptores Prisci de hanc provincia penitus siluerunt. Marcus Cato in fragm. de Origin. C. 7, scripsit Luca illustris, Luhccio Lucumone Rege Tuscorum, Lucus, et Montes Feroniani etc.158 A C. Sempr. in Divis. Ital. frag. 3, Liguria Apuana vocatur.159 Antoninus Pius Itiner. apud Annium L. 2, vias indigitans, quas ducebant in Gallias, nunc Insubriam, Cassiano itinere itur, inquit, per Politorium, Arcenum, Miniorem, Forum Cassii, Aruntes, Camillarios, Tudernum, Varentarum, Umbronem Montem, Senam Colmiam, Phocenses, Lucam, et Caferonianum transitur in Gallias.160 A Ptolomeo in 6. Europ. tab. L. 3, Lucus Feroniae vocatur,161 uti a Plinio Natural. Hist. Lib. 3 C. 5, in Italiae descriptione,162 quae alibi Montes Tegulatos appellavit,163pd qui sicuti notavit Giraldus sunt Pania, montesque contigui,164 inter quos Anselmus Micottus I.V.D. e Camporgiano (cuius ms. ingenue plura debere fateor), Caferonianae Team ob nominis similitudinem esse referendam existimavit.165 Strabo De situ Orbis XVI.v] L. 5, Ad Montes Lunae incumbentes, scripsit, urbs est Luca ubi plerique vicatim habitant, quibus Caferonianam etiam amplexus est.166 Livius Ab Urbe Condita pluribus in locis huius meminit, et praecipue Lib. 41, in quo Petilii167 mortem oraculi verbo Leti ambigue intortam expressit. Praefecti, refert, inde in diversas regiones Petilius adversus Balistae, et Leti iugum (quod nunc Alpium D. Pellegrini nomen audit), quod eos montes perpetuo dorso inter se iungit, castra habuit. Ibi adhortantem eum pro concione militem, immemorem ambiguitatis verbi ominatum ferunt, se eo die Lethum capturum esse.168 Pro monte autem Leti, Lethum omine fatali subivit.169 

Sunt qui credunt Virgilium de hac regione intellexisse, quando Aeneid. Lib. 7, N. 800 cecinit 

Circaeumque iugum, queis Iuppiter Anxuris arvis
praesidet, et viridi gaudens Feronia luco.170
 

Sed errore plectuntur, Micotto etiam supralaudato auctore, quoniam Dea Feronia, praeter locum, ubi nunc est Petrasancta171 (non in Bientina,172 uti Volateranus Com. Urb. Li. 5 existimat)173 binos alios in Italia habuit lucos sibi sacros. Alter in Faliscis,174 de quo Strabo De situ Orbis L. 5 Sub Monte autem Soractae175 urbs est Feronia, quo nomine a Dea quadam nuncupatur, quam finitimi miro dignantur honore. Eodem in loco ipsius est templum mirificum sacri genus habens, nam qui eius numine afflantur, nudis pedibus prunas, et copiosum inambulant sub hac XVII.r] daemone nulla laesione cinerem.176 Alter, de quo loquebatur Poeta177 iuxta Dioniis. Alicarnas. Lib. 2,178 Sipontin.,179 supra 7 Aeneid. Virg. Servium,180 et alios erat in Latio Tarracinae181 propinquus, quem etiam Syl. Ital. de Bel. Pun. Lib. 13 carmine ornavit. 

His fractus ductor convelli signa maniplis
optato laetis habitu iubet, itur in agros
dives ubi ante omnes colitur Feronia luco
et sacer humectat fluvialia rura Capenas.182
 

Variis regio haec finibus clauditur, quos verbis ex Fabritio Zum. in Inform. XI desumptis circumscribemus. Provincia Garfagnana, scribit, posita est inter agrum Pistoriensem ab oriente, et agrum Lunensem ab occidente, quae ab illis agris dividitur per cacumina montium inter hanc, et illos existentium, et item inter summitates Montis Apenini a latere septentrionis, ubi Lombardia, et a meridie territorium Lucense, et est divisa in quatuor Vicarias, nempe Camporegianae, Castiglionis, Bargae, et illam Coregliae.183 Tunc temporis vero angustioribus est coarctata limitibus, etiam quo ad nomen, quod solum ea pars retinuit, quae sub Serenissimo Aestensi dominio fortunatissima viget. 

Figuram navis provincia haec sortitur, quae inter Apenini radices, atque Paniam curvata laetae fertilitatipe velificat. Pania Mons184 est asperrimus, sterilis, nudus, vix feris notus, ita forsan a Poenia paupertatis dea185 vocatus. Bargam186 nunc orientem versus habet, a meridie praedictam Paniam, Montem Team187 a Ponente, qui eam a Lunensi agro disterminat, et a septentrione XVII.v] Apeninorum iuga tenet. Multis torrentibus, rivulis, fontibus, fluviisque perennibus, ac limpidis perluitur, qui variis exquisitissimis ditescunt piscibus, inter quos trutae celebres ad irritamenta gulae magnatum, principumque mensas exornant. Primum Serchius188 sibi vindicat locum a Ptolomeo Geogr. Lib. 3 Tab. 6 Boactus,189 a Plinio Hist. Nat. Lib. 3 Auxer,190 a Strabone Aesar De situ Orb. L. 5 appellatus.191pf A duobus fontibus originem trahit, quorum alterum supra Silanum,192 supra Soraggium193 alterum rimosa tellus egurgitat, coeuntesque postea eorum rivuli, aliis rursus in itinere sociatis Castrinovi moenia una cum Turritae194 undis, de quibus Testi, non sine strepitu diverberant. Corrivant in hunc novi rivi, novique torrentes, quibus in mare Lucae propinquius tumidus quandoque, ac minax, tribus lapidibus ab Arni195 ostiis distans, non inglorius devolvitur. 

Antiquitus cum Arno immiscebatur, ut innuere videtur Rutilius Poeta Numant. itiner. L. 1, qui de Pisis loquens inquit, 

Alpheae veterem contemplor originis urbem quam cingunt geminis Arnus, et Auxer aquis.196pg
 

Id quod etiam Strabo L. 5, De situ Orbis, affirmat.197 Sed quoniam Lucensi Urbi plurima ferebat incommoda, fuit a D. Fridiano illius urbis Episcopo198 XVIII.r] (uti pie creditur), ab anno 560 ad annum 575 solo rastro, stupente natura, divisus. Hic, scribit Volat. Comm. Urb. L. 5, De rebus pisanor., Phridianus Praesul ante omnes colitur, cuius meminit Gregorius, cum in aliis Lucensibus benemeritus, tum quod Auxerim amnem agros inundatione vastantem divinitus compescuit, ex quo pars ea, quae Auxeris nunc dicitur, ab ea deducta aspicitur.199 

De hoc etiam Guido Vanninus Poeta Luc. Epigr. 12, et 19 cecinit, affirmans, quod 

Rastro iussit parere furentem.200
 

Amnis hic, ut multi alii, adorationem antiquorum meruit ob Strabonis fabellam De situ Orbis L. 5,201 secundum Annium, ipsumque, tanquam particularem Etruriae Deum coluerunt, ut etiam ex Svetonio,202 et ex Macrobio habetur,203 de quo videatur Annius super 16 fragm. Catonis.204 Silentio tamen involvendum non est memorabile Augusti fatum Svetonio Tranquillo, in eiusdem vita, notante. Sub idem tempus, ait, ictu fulminis ex inscriptione statuae eius prima nominis littera effluxit.ph Responsum est centum solum dies post haec victurum, quem numerum C littera notaret, futurumque, ut inter deos referretur, quod Aesar, id est reliqua pars e Caesaris nomine Etrusca lingua Deus vocaretur.205 

Laxatur haec provincia in aliquas valles, in multosque colles curvatur scopulis etiam praeruptis, saxisque ingentibus aspera nemoribus hinc inde sylvescit. Metallorumpi est dives. Granis, vino, canape, fructibus, oleribus, piscibus non caret. Carnibus vero, XVIII.v] caseo, castaneis ad abundantiam usque luxuriat, hic illa satis ad sobrietatem, haec ut plurimum ad satietatem pro vicinis etiam exuberant. Nec ibi venatica desiderantur, cumpj ad delicias, tum ad pecorum custodiam. Antiquitus enimpk saepe cum ursis, nunc cum lupis, taxis atque vulpeculis saepepl res est. 

Homines ut plurimum parvi corpore, colore maior pars subfusco, torosa, et fortis, semper ad arma parata, in subitam iram prona, vindictae avida, iniuriarum memor, acuti, ac versatilis ingenii, exteris amica, hospitalitatis amantissima, suo domino fida, literis apta, naturali amoenissimo Tuscorum pollens eloquio, hilaris cantu, saltuque vivida, in mecanicis ingeniosa, mercibusque sollicita. Hyeronimus Capugnanus Itiner. Part. prima paucis populum hunc delibat, Natio haec, inquit, Garfagnanae martia, audax, et in bello assuefacta, indomitaque, Atestinis principibus devota,206 quod sane, si ullo tempore, praesenti armis exteris strepente, clarescit.207 

Quinque,pm et nonaginta vicos, multasque villas, et rura tenet, quorum omnium caput primum Castrumnovum est, secundum Camporgianus,208 tertium Trasilicus.209 Vigintiquatuor mille circiter colonos alit, ut in notulis, aut catalogis scribarum, et cancellariorum anni 1626 legere est. 

Dividitur nunc tota Caferoniana in tres partes pro gubernando aptius populo, quas antiquo vocabulo Vicarias adhuc appellant,pn quoniam a Vicario, idest Imperatoris, aut alterius Principis supremi vices gerente XIX.r] regebantur, qui nunc Rationis Dux (Capitano di Ragione) dicitur. 

Prima est illa Castrinovi, ubi Gubernator residet cum octo militibus lanceariis,po vel hastilia ferentibus vario cultu ornatis continuo eidem adstantibus. Toti provinciae tum in civili, tum in politico generaliter praeest. Gubernatio vero particularis cuilibet Rationis Duci propriae Vicariae innititur. 

Secunda est Camporgiani Vicaria, quae antiquitus erat prima, sed vel ob comodiorem Castrinovi, viarumque situm, vel fatorum clade ac temporum vitio exulcerata, atque depressa vix nunc secundum obtinet locum. Discerpitur in triginta tres vicos, vulgo Terre, qui habitatores circiter 1968 alunt. 

Tertia est in Trasilico, quae multos pariter sub sua ditione vicos possidet, quorum incolae circiter sunt 4505. 

Binaepp arces militibus,pq armisque continuo munitaepr regionem hanc defendunt, et fraenant, reliquis, quas antiqui erexerunt, vel dirutis, vel incustoditis. Prima dicitur Arx Montis Alfonsi,210 quae in colliculo Castronovo superincumbente erigitur, affabre laborata, perpetuis excubiis, militibusque gregariis diligentissime custodita. Nomen sortitur ab Alfonso Secundo Aestensi Ferrariae Duce,211 qui anno 1579 die 22 Aprilis aedificandam curavit, ut hostilia Lucensium, facinorosorumque hominum tentamina reprimeret. Marchioni Cornelio Bentivolio212 munus hoc demandatum fuit, qui cum quatuor millibus granorum sacculis, tormentis varii generis bellicis, variaque ad arduum laborem supellectile Castrumnovum petens, superadditis etiam triginta quatuor millibus scutis a provincia solutis, pacis dulcedinem populo, vicinis hostibus terrorem, quietem XIX.v] omnibus caram promittensps faelicissime memorandum opus absoluit. Arx altera vocatur Verrucole213 antiquumpt servans adhuc nomen, atque structuram, situ inaccessibilis, armisque praecipue priscorum manu missilibus inexpugnabilis. Supra horrendum, altissimumque scopulum posita, undique praerupta, atque impervia, nisi per angustissimum tramitem, qui facile a defensoribus obtruncari, saxis, ac trabibus, paucisque aliis armis etiam a natura ipsa paratis defendi potest. Nomen sapienter ab antiquis inditum, quoniam Verruca, Catone monente apud Aulum Gelium Noct. Attic. Lib. 3 C. 7, altum, asperumque montis verticem significat, hinc verrucosus mons, qui multis verrucis, hoc est asperis, editioribusque iugis assurgit.214 Ita et nos medici verrucas dicimus crudum quoddam tumorum genus, cutemque verrucosam tuberculis quibusdam exasperatam vocamus. 

Stemma est pila metallica, ex cuius apice, ac latere utroque singulatim tres flammarum glomi erumpunt, quae genium populi bellatorem, igneumque spiritum facile furentem demonstrat. Quod Alphonsi Primi Ferrariae Ducis215 fuit ob partam Ravennae victoriam cum epigraphe Loco, et tempore. 

Spirituale dominium partim est sub Dioecesi Episcopi Serzanae,216 vel secundum alios Cergiani, aut Lunae novae, partim sub Dioecesi Episcopi Lucae.217pu Dividit illud rivulus Podii (del Poggio), rivulusque Cavezzae218 inter S. Romanum,219 Silicagnanamque220 percurrens. Sub variis ingemuit dudum dominis Caferonianae Provinciae,pv quos singulos enumerare taediosum foret et extra chorum saltarem nimis. Sub auspiciis nunc faelicissime floret Serenissimae Domus Aestensis, omnium oblita calamitatum, quae diu frementem, ac reluctantem XX.r] diverberarunt. 

Supra Castrinovi portam insculpta marmore visitur aquila expansis alis, rostroque minax, quae leonis dorso superincumbens iras eiusdem imperio frenat, atque castigat. Quod victoriam Aestensium supra hostes, quos tacito calamo praetereundos existimamus, demonstrat.221 Cui suis in Satyris Ludovicus Ariostus arrisit, quando die 20 Februarii anni 1522 gubernandae provinciae ipsi opus commissum fuit. Sic etenim in quarta Satyra, quae incipit 

Per custodir, come al Signor mio piacque
il grege garfagnin, etc.222
 

Historiam leonis tangit, sacrumque ulcus refricat. 

Deipw saper la licenza in che è venuto
questo paese, poiché la Pantera223
indi il Leon l’ha fra gli artigli avuto,224
 

Quae regio postea excusso exterorum iugo sub auspiciis Aestensis Aquilae respiravit, et ut cum Virgilio loquar 

Rediere saturnia regna.225
 

Sed extra oleas226 me nimis divagantem increpas amicorum suavissime, dum non naturae, sed hominum historiam pando. Parce prurienti calamo, resque nondum editas scribenti, quae curiosis forsan salivam movebunt, e tenebris abscondita eruent, spiritus excitabunt somniculosis. Pudebat claram adeo provinciam literario orbi ignotam, cui maternum non obscurum sanguinem, et ipsa natalia debeo. Natus enim ex caferoniensi matre ex nobili Davinorum familia die Martis 3 Maii, hora 14 annopx 1661, dum genitor meus utriusque Iuris Doctor in Arce Trasilici iura dabat, sentiebam me invitum a natura trahi extra naturae historiam. XX.v] 

Patere etiam, ut parergon loco nonnulla antiqua Romanorumpy locorumque nomina montium iugis adhuc illustria clade temporum plebaeis distorta vocabulis ad pristinum nitorem restituam, quae ex ms. Timothei Tramonti,227 Anselmi Micotti,228 Ioannis Bosii,229 Bartholomei Morgantii230 aliorumque sudato opere repertis avidus exhauriebam. Sciaspz tamen exopto, me non adeo esse credulum, ut omnia antiqua nomina, quae leges a priscis consulibus, tyrannis, regulis, heroibus desumpta vera existimem.qa Multa mihi videntur ridicula, distorta multa, et violentia quadam ingenii potius expressa, quam sponte nascentia, quae (uti communis antiquitatis scriptorum mos est) nonnullis immixta veris historiam fabulis, fabulas historiis immiscent. Nolo candorem meum, nolo veritatem, nolo tuas aures offendere. Decerpe, quae credes vero consona, quae falsa reice. Dicam cum clarissimo viro Philippo a Turre Nonqb is ego sum, qui pronus induam confictas plerumque, et turbidis, caenosisque fontibus haustas nomenclaturas, et migrationes populorum.qc De inscript. M. Aquilii Cap. 1.231 XXI.r] XXI.v] 

Villaqd di Marcioneqe—Vicus Marcelli. 

Castiglione—Castrum Lestrigonum. 

Villa Calamandrina—Vicus Aemilii Mamercini. 

Corfino—Vicus Valerii Corvini. 

Soraggio—Vicus Sergii.qf 

Canigiano—Vicus Canini Rebilii. 

Pania di Corfino—Mons Valerii Corvini. 

Silano—Castrum Iuniiqg Silani. 

Fiumicello di Soraggio—Amnis Caii Atilii Serrani. 

Camporgiano—Campus Roscianus,qh vel Calfurnianus. 

Forno Volastro—Vicus Calpurnii Bestiae. 

Silicano—Vicus Silii Silvani.qi 

Rosciano—Vicus Roscii. 

Cassiano—Vicus Cassii. 

Cesarana—Vicus Caesaris. 

Brutiano—Vicus Bruti. 

Petrognano—Vicus Petronii. 

Niciano—Vicus Anicii.qj 

Alpe di S. Pellegrino—Mons Leti. XXII.r] 

Valico—V. Valeriiqk Poblicolae. Vergemoli—V. Servilii Gemini.ql Terminone—V. Minutiae Thermae. Trasilico—V. Virginii Tricosti.qm Mulazzano—V. Cornelii Maluginei.qn Massa—V. Valerii Messalae.qo Magnano—V. Pompei Magni.qp Cerageto—Vicus Tergemini Curiati.qq Mozanella—V. Menenii Lanati.qr Pian di Cerreto—V. Aurelii Ceretani.qs Chioza—V. Cai Acatii.qt Riana—Vicus Rheae Silviae. Trappignano—V. Lucreti Tricipitini.qu Albiano—V. Fabiiqv Lebeonis. Tiglio—V. Statilii Tauri.qw Filecchio—V. Furii Phili.qx Oppio—V. Sp. Oppii.qy Coreglia—V. Aurelii Costae.qz Ghivizano—V. Cassii Viscellini.ra Tereglio—V. Elii Tuberi.rb Calavorno—V. Accilii Glabrii.rc Bolognano—V. Calfurnii Bibuli.rd Cardoso—V. Lucii Cethegi.re Gallicano—V. Galli Canini.rf Verni—V. Plautirg Venni. Fiatton, e Campi—V. Fonteiirh Capitonis. Perpoli—V. Papiriiri Masonis. Palleroso—V. Oratii Paluilli.rj Pieve Fosciana—V. Publiirk Flaccinatoris. Migliano—V. Marci Aemilii.rl Bargecchia—V. Aemilii Barbulae.rm Eglio—V. Eliirn Peto. Rontano—V. Aruntiiro Nepotis. Ceretolo—V. Luctatiirp Cereti. Gragnanella—V. Cornelii Dolobellae.rq Silico—Vicus Sillae. Antisciano—V. Hostilii Mancini.rr Careggine—V. Ebutiirs Cornicensis. Fabbriche—V. Caii Fabricii.rt Ponticosi—V. Publii Cossi.ru Sambuca—V. Fabii Ambusti.rv Cascianello—V. Ottacilli Crassi.rw Roggio—V. Luciirx Regillensis. Puianella—V. Popiliiry Lenas. Vitoio—V. Ventidii Bassi.rz Vaii—V. Lucii Velleii.sa Corti—V. Curii Dentati.sb Corfigliano—V. Calfurniisc Pisonis. Minucciano—V. Munatii Planci.sd Agliano—V. Eliani.se Castagnola—V. Fulvii Centimali.sf Giuncognano—V. Genutii Clepsinae.sg Capoli—V. L. Capitolini.sh Pontaccio—V. Gnei Petici.si Dalli—V. Caesi Duillii.sj Cogno—V. Gnei Genutii.sk Veregnano—V. Publi Verennii.sl Magliano—V. Lucii Emiliani.sm Gragnano—V. Geganii Mamercini.sn Metello—V. Caecilii Metelli.so Borsigliano—Brutus Bubulanus. Livignanosp—M. Levinus. Caprignano—V. Cornelii Aruini.sq Orzaiola—V. Aurelii Oresti.sr Sala—V. Liviiss Salinatoris. Piazza—V. Vibiist Pansae. Naggio—V. Nautii Rutilii.su Bibbiana—Fabius Vibulanus. Pugliano—C. Petilius. Etc. 

Quaesv sw omnia solum eruditionis causa indigito, non ut, cum feret occasio iis utar nominibus, quae obsoleta iam, usuque deperdita necessariam elocutionis, ac historiae claritatem obtenebrant. 

Sed e diverticulo in viam. Castilionem Paulo post ingressi XXII.v] sumus, ubi generose ab Ill.mi Prioris Guazzelli232 benignitate excepti quicquid curiosi viciniis in illis extabat, magno animi solatio didicimus. Argenteos pyritas ob substratam cupri,sx argentive mineram exhausimus,233 pilasque terrae flaviusculas, quarumsy in centro medulla auricolor lucidissima condebatur, cuisz quoniam igne resolvitur, et exhalat, hyerarchiae nomen, nescio qua ratione,234 indidere. Pyropum, sive carbunculum monstruosae magnitudinis quodam in specu, ob torrentem praeterfluentem inaccessibili, noctu adeo splendescere affirmarunt, ut accensa lampas videatur, sed vel ignem fatuum esse, vel putridum lignum noctilucum, vel lampyrim aut cicindelam aliquam, suspicarita etiam fas est.235 

Non procul in substrata planitie citra Aesaremtb Torrentem (Serchio) thermales ubertim emanant aquae dictae della Pieve, quoniam sub 31] ditione Terrae Plebis existunt.236 Inter tot, quae intc nostris montibus saluberrimae scatent, solaetd istae nunc sunt in usu, aliisque palmam abripuerunt. Experientia enim teste, maxima etiam locum non invenere remedia, si tempestive potentur, male natam plurium morborum sobolem in dies licette succrescentem demetunt.tf Nec tam facile remorbescunt, semel recte corpora salutiferis undis detersa. 

Iacobus Lavellius harumtg virtutes Literato Orbi communicavit anno 1609 kal. Septembris.237 Medio lapide distat earundem scaturigo a Castronovo. Suntth limpidae saporis subsalsi, subamarique, odoris bituminosi, et plus quam tepidae. Suas etiam longe a fonte virtutes servant. Eo modo, quo aquae Tetutianae,238 sumuntur, praemissa nempe levi purgatione, expiatisque primis viis. Usque ad bis senos dies novantur,ti vel etiam ulteriores, si placet, iuxta saevam, antiquamve morborum tyrannidem. Dosis decem, duodecimve librae quolibet mane iuxta indigentiam, aut ventriculi capacitatem, et robur, atque id, quod nescio quid admirandi sapit, vires tunc recreant, neque tumet, nec extraneo pondere gravatur stomacus, nec torminibus ventrem exagitant, sed blande, placideque duarum horarum spatio praeterfluunt, lubricam alvum reddunt, sitim extinguunt. 

Primi extrinsecus mirificas vires in doloribus rheumaticis, 32] artrithicisque, ac variistj nervorum morbis experti sunt, quibus faelicibus observatis experimentis alii, devorato ut ita dicam timore, spequetk maioris efficaciae, magisque prosperi effectus concepta, aquam ipsam animose biberunt, quam, cum non solum innoxium, sed incomparabile remedium turmatimtl advolarunt, ac sine praecedenti purgatione, sine sexus, aetatis, temporis discrimine generose potantes, fere omnes, tanquam miraculo sanescebant. Auscultabant eiusdem viribus saeviora fere quaecumque morborum semina, ita ut apud vicinos populos medicinae nomen universalis audiret. Deferbuit tamen insanus adeo bibendi cacoethes,tm cum nonnullos impuro corpore, ac sine debitis cautelis imprudenter bibentes maiori labe infecerint. More scilicet magnorum remediorum, quae intempestive sumpta sibi veneni naturam, interdum asciscunt.tn Eo tandem res devenit, ut prudenter cum medicorum administratae consilio, spes aegrotantium non fallant, et signate multis, non indiscriminatim omnibus opitulentur.to Sed ut ad offam proprius accedam. 

Dolorestp capitis antiquos vel saepe recrudescentes, epilepsias, vertigines, surditates, lymphaticos fere omnes morbos, cordis palpitationes praecipue spasmodicas, pulmonum ulcera, et asthmata delent. Ventriculis effoeti, crudoque marcore tabescentis solatium sunt. Icteros detergunt, dolores colicos, passiones histericas, illiacos 33] affectus, hydropicos quosdam sanant. Unda enim pellit undam,tq atque ad antiqua serositatum impluvia extravasatas lymphas corrivat. Ventris fluxus cohibent, urinariosque tubulos verrendo calculos, et arenosa sedimenta propellunt. Menstrua provocando, vel obstructos meatus reserando faecunditatem revocant, podagraeque tormenta levant. Vermes tandem, eorundem mucosa nidamenta, et semina certo certius a cellulatis intestinorum latebrulis exterminant. 

Quid tantas donet his aquis vires, vix coniecturis locus. Nondum enim exactam harum analysim institui, quam, si meliora Deus otia dabit, et si Regium Lepidi,239 ubi in posterum mea Patria stabit, post tot emensos labores iterum revisam, instituere gestit animus. Si tamen aliquid hariolari fas est, ex sale alcalico calcario, ac bitumine, quibus mons ille scatet, vires omnes mutuari, non abludet forsan a vero. Extrahebant enim antiquitus coloni a superincumbentibus fodinis quandam egregiam bituminis speciem, quae gagatis a Galeno descripti naturam redolebat.240 Cum autem gagates virtutibus omnibus polleat, quibus dicta Caferonianae Plebis aqua, hinc salinis etiam, tanquam auxiliaribus copiis ulterius ditata,tr iure merito morbos omnes descriptos eminenter pessundare necesse est. 

Parte montis opposita novae pariter thermae olim repertae sunt lacteo sapore, atque tepore conspicuae, quae ad sal acre muriaticumve bilis edomandum mite 34] conducebant, sed in ipsis cunabulis pene obsoleverunt.241 

Camporgianum tandem inexpectato devenimus, antiquam scilicet illam totius provinciae metropolim, ubi a generosissimo D. Carolo Davinio,242 ab Ex.mo D. Ioanne Baptista Ternio243 avunculis meis, atque ab Ill.mo D. Iulio de Rubeis Praetore,244 concive meo, ac consanguineo perhumaniter excepti, dura salebrosi fastidia itineris, fractasque vires levavimus.ts Certabant omnes officiis,tt festivasque celebrando dapes, craterastu magno omine coronantestv severitatem philosophicam, ac medici peregrinantis austeritatem exuere me cogebant. Tunc thermae, tunc minerae, tunc tota natura sepulta mero iacebat, calentemque vidisse,tw lusus erat. 

Tam grata hospitalitatetx expediti Turritae balnea visebamus, quae uno tantum lapide a Castronovo occidentem versus distant.245 Providam antiquorum sedulitatem, recentiorum incuriam obstupui. Elegantissima, et ad commodum balneantium magnifice quondam instructa aedificia, nunc fatali ruina quassata cernuntur. Limo, parietinis, saxis, immundoque caeno lavacrum unum repletum est, et secreta calidae commercia per incustoditas vias in subiectum flumen defluunt. Solium alterum 35] paulo diligentius detersum est, adhucquety aegrotantium solatio famulari potest. Quadrilaterae figurae est cum sedilibus circum, et in umbilico laboratis, et lateritio fornice tectum. Per occultum aquaeductum e montis pede in hydrophylacium246 aqua saliens ferventissima cogitur,tz inde in canaliculum subgrundiae simillimum, in solium defluit. Embolo tamen, seu epistomio, si placet, clauditur, derivaturque per recurva demeacula circa lavacri labrum ad alios usus. Nec solum aqua calens extillat. Frigidissima prope funditur, quae ex eiusdem montis visceribus fistulatoua tramite emergens contiguum igniti aquaeductus lambit latus, quae pariterub per diversos cuniculos ad lubitum diducitur. Ita temperant ad arbitrium modo aestuantem unius calorem, modo rigens alterius gelu. Non vulgari scilicet artis, ac naturae miraculo. Potest enim quis eodem in balneo modo gelidos artus concalefacere, modo exustosuc refrigerare, modo per gradus, vel laudabili temperie inter utriusque extrema corpusud fovere. Non opus est, ut in Euganeis,247 quod aqua longo itinere mitigata descendens, minaci ardore deposito, suavi temperatione mollescat. Torpet, multoque blandius fracta intepescit in ipso limine, visque illa medicatrix non longo elassescitue itinere. Unde cum Cassiodoro, et de hoc fonte dicam non tantum deliciosa voluptas acquiritur, quantum blanda medicina confertur, scilicet sine tormento cura, sine horrore remedia, sanitas inempta.248 His adnectitur cubiculum omni necessario quondam instructum et pro assistentium, et pro balneantium commodo, quod tamen semidirutum est. Calor 36] aquae huius ferventis, sapor, odor, vires eaedem sunt, ac thermarum Euganeorum Montium,uf siug eas excipias quae tartareo, mihique interne suspecto ferrumine lapidescunt.249 Abundant scilicet sale, sulphure, volatili terra, spiritu, ut sapore, odore, experimentis, viribus, tactu et analysi patet. Hinc in cronicis praecipue, ac desperatis morbis ad has, tanquam ad sacram anchoram confugiendum existimamus, tum si interne, tum si externe a perito clinico praescribantur. Nemo enim tam hospes in medicina est, qui ignoret, longos, atque refractarios morbos, ab obcaecatis, ut plurimum huius machinae canaliculis, cribrisve infarctis dependere, pro quibus reserandis nil aquis thermalibus sale, sulphure, ac spiritu luxuriantibus potentius existit. Lavant enim, everruntqueuh viscerum, partiumque tubulos, atque alte glandulosos acinos pereptando coagulatos succos dissolvunt, et urgent, hinc sanguineo latici, lymphae, fermentisque pristinum motum conciliando ad antiqua munia marcescentes inerti languore partes restituunt. Ita revocato suo omnibus tono,ui reseratis, detersisque organulis omnibus,uj ac edomitis succis ex chylo praecipue crudo sylvestribus, laudabilis in posterum ab universa massa fluidorum circulatio celebratur, despumatio eorundem,uk ac depuratio exacte perficitur, ex quo tota sanitatis beatitudo dependet. Ex quibus patet fere universam morborum sobolem ex dictis causis generaliter enascentemul posse Turritae Thermas 37] averruncare. Hipocondriacos igitur morbos, qui ut plurimum protheiformi, ut ita dicam, vultu250 communia derident remedia, medicorumque flagellum audiunt, renum, ureterum, vescicae labes, uterique sordesum delere posse indubium est. Ob sulphurun amicas pectori, ob sal detersivum ventriculo, et intestinis, capitique ob spiritum nemo nescit. Si quis autem timidiusculus nimiam earundem activitatem perhorrescat, poterit facili negotio frigida temperare, easque thermis blande tepentibus et minus activis B. Virginis Montis Orthoni251 prorsus aemulas reddere. 

Neque solum interne, sed externe certas opes ferunt. Trahunt enim originem cutanei morbi vel a sanguinis exuviis per cutaneas glandulasuo non expulsis, reticularique plexu,252 aut areolis253 interpositis irretitis, vel ab externis vermiculorum iniuriis caeca erosione pustulas, et ulcuscula excavantibus, aut a salium acutie, vel asperitate, aut a poliposa, pigrave vapescentisup sanguinis dispositione, aut a lymphae, serive acescentis torpore, vel ab alia rebelli, et alte etiam inhaerente causa, quae totius fere cutis compositam rationem coinquinet,uq sulphureae, salinaeque moleculae spiritu, caloreque agitativo vibratae poterunt affrictas labes explodere. Eius namque spiracula rursus aperiendo, crispatos, aut rigidos villos emolliendo, lentis 38] humoribus motum conciliando insectorum cuiuslibet speciei turbam potenter exterminando, fibras tandem tabo marcidas roborando citius, tutius, blandiusque qualibet externaur remediorum farragine ad pristinam sanitatem aegros restituent. Eadem ratione nervosis affectibus vel stillicidio, vel aspersione, vel immersione, vel alio quolibet modo prescriptae opitulantur.us 

In dorso montis opposito trans torrentem aliae huiusmodi thermae, sive fontes excocti, ac igniti, ut cum Cassiodoro loquar,254 emanant, qui neglecti per rudes fistulas rimosasque vias in declive devolvuntur. Et quamquam nullus honos medicatis his undis usque adhuc a scriptoribus exurgat, nihilo tamen minus nomen Aponon255 et istae merentur, cum etiam in istis, ut in tot aliis esse possit 

Publica morborum requies, commune medentum
auxilium, praesens numen, inempta salus.256ut
 

His non sine medico examinatis solatio inceptum iter prosequebamur per cautes adeo praecipites, et crebra mortis imagine perhorrendas, ut quandoque paenituerituu nimium curiositati litasse. Vincebat tamen acris cognoscendiuv cupido, trementemque interdum pedem erectus ad meliora animus novis ausibus castigabat. Tunc mirabar inter adeo praerupta saxorum iuga, inter tam ardua terrarum, et rudes scopulos, in quibus nulla oculorum, et praecipua 39] palatiuw oblectamenta vix sunt- 

Castaneae molles, et pressi copia lactis,257
 

mirabar inquam fortes, et lacertosos homines diu, ac beate vivere, foeminasque lepidulas, Veneresux ipsas urbium quandoque nitore, ac lenitateuy frontis excellere. Et tamen solam aquam limpidissimam ebibunt, et rudissimis alimentis latrantem stomacuhm saturant. Non artis adminiculis,uz ut Divi Hyeronimi verbis utar, expoliuntva purpurisso faciem, nec extraneis exuviis turritos vertices struunt.258 Non Minerva, non Ceres, non Bacchus ibi sua munera dispensat,vb adhucque ibi vetustas diceres aetatis aureae latitare reliquias. Amylon tritici defectu pro lineis panniculis, vel amiculis, advc notam consistentiam indurandis ari radice259 conficiunt, provido sagacis populi, ac naturae nullibi deficientis consilio. Detracto enim primo cortice contritas radices aqua fontis macerant, donec mollescant, deinde cremorem exprimunt, qui facile postea in fundo vasis subsidet. Prima decantata aqua, ut cum chimicis loquar, novam superaffundunt, quae salia quaelibet liquet rodentia, quavd diligenter effusa candidissimum sedimentum exsiccant soli, quod ab amylo nostrate nec consistentia, nec colore, nec usu distinguitur. Annonae tempore pro cibo salubri 40] quandoque usos affirmabant, cum tota vis caustica, rodendique robur,ve quod ex manuum dolorifica sensatione et ipsi primis expressionibus experiuntur, ab aqueis moleculis absorbeatur. 

Ultimos tandem Alpium fines, quosvf Panie vocant per vix concessos tramites tetigimus, ex quibus non longe Tyrrhenum aequor aestuans visitur. Hic inter saxa nigro pumice primo in limine squallentia largus minerarum thesaurus, hic curiosus naturae ruspator et corpus, et ingenium fatigare, sollicitamque sciendi famem satiare, corporis autem augere potest. Neque inter horrentes cryptas coloni desunt. Furnus Volaster non improprio nomine vocatur pauperculus vicus, quem ferrea gens, armisque aptissima inhabitat. Antiquam, celebremque huius loci viam, regionisque asperitatem Areostus itavg eleganter delineavit. 

Lo scoglio, ove il sospetto fa soggiorno
alto dal mare da seicento braccia
di ruinose balze cinto intorno,
e da ogni parte di cader minaccia,
il più stretto sentier, che guida al Forno
là dove il Garfagnin il ferro caccia,
la via Flamminia, et Apia nomar voglio,
che passa verso il mar va su lo scoglio.260
 

A Brixiensibus metallurgis primo mapalia, humilesque constructas casas asserunt incolae, cuius non 41] ultimum argumentum est, multa adhuc brixiensia exaudiri vocabula, quae inobservantes villici Tusca lepiditate commiscent.261 Parte laeva Petrosanae Torrentis,262 qui ab occidente in orientem fluit, sitae sunt domunculae in scrupeis stratorum montis radicibus, e quibus asperrimae rupium moles extolluntur, colore, scabritie, sterilitate saxis ingentibus horridae.263 Inflexis etiam crustis modo lunantur in arcum, modo elatis tumulis fastigiatae extolluntur, varieque lasciviente natura in rectum, in obliquum, in ambitum quasi novi montes per montium dorsa resurgunt. Nonvh longe distant minerae ferri, atque vitrioli, quas summa cum animi voluptate, praeeunte sagacissimovi quodam viro, lustravimus. Complevit dulce mentis, et oculorum oblectamentum inexpectata urbanitasvj iuvenis, qui diversoriolum,vk ubi morabar, ingressus, voce, vultuque certa laetitiae signa prodens me fidis, sanctisque amplexibus implicuit. Obstupui facilemvl in aspero solo humanitatem, ubi cautes inter, atque speluncas tanta comitas, tam eximia indoles lateret,vm cum mihi quaerenti,vn se quoque advenam, se Dominicum de Corradis Austriae,264 mineris,vo nescio quo fato praepositum,vp candide aperuit. Me sibi non ignotum incogitato fortunae favore suae mensae socium, non in sylvatico diversorio quandoque 42] exteris infido, pernoctantem velle. Ut nomen mihi pariter perspectum audivi, cum in hospitio inclementi inter orci familiam vel me quasi in ergastulo sepultum viderem, fidelia tecta, benignumque hospitisvq officium non renuens fractas senticoso vires itinere, securivr tessera hospitii, et amoenissimis recreavivs colloquiis. Quanta enim in iuvenili pectore rerum naturae exacta cognitio, quanta arcanorum ubertas, quam incomparabilis eruditio? Dulcissima noctis quies fere tota fuit nulla quies, admirandam minerarum fabricam, inaccessam fontium, ac thermarum originem, tam grande remediorum ac divitiarum patrimonium, quod Summus Protoplastes265 vulgo medicorum ignotum specubus in illis condiderat, fere percurrimus. Non semper, dicebamus, natura pingit in amoeno virore sub dio remedia, visuque ipso aegrotantes ad sanitatem alliciens delicias auxiliis immiscet.vt Condit et aliquando in cavernis tactu truci, fumosavu facie, sapore ingrato teterrimis, quod iuvet, ac sub amaro aspectu salutemvv occulit. Pandam tibi lubens alibi exactam horum omnium descriptionem, quae liberiori stylo, vacuoque magis tempori reservo. Me iuvat interim, amice suavissime, te magna non parvi laboris solatia non deridere. Et in istis licet exiguis observatiunculis non exiguam latere naturae partem cognosces. Nulla sane fuit ante faelicissimum 43] nostrumvw aevum sciendi genuinam, nulloque auditiuncularum fuco maculatam huius historiam cupido maior, sed multis intra urbium carceres clausis nulla cura minor. Sufficiat paucula haec festinanter quidem, sed sincere notata veluti pugillaribus, et palympsesto libasse, cum iam gymnasticae campanae sonitum audiam, meque crastina die, rursus ad publicos labores vocet Patavini pensumvx Lycei.266 Praetereundum tamen non censeo, quae de fontibus et in illis cryptis, ut superius innuebam, iugis aquis scatentibusvy observavi, cum horum origo nunc praecipue tuum calamum adhucvz exerceat, meamque curiositatemwa rursus titillet. 

Et in illis perpetuae fodinis aquae. An vero, et centrales adsint, an verticales solum, an utraeque coeant in unum, ignoro. Verticales, nempe caelestes, ex quibus praecipuum alimentum, ut suspicor, lactis adinstar minerarum germina sugunt, per amplas, hiantesque superiores rimas, ac scissa stratorum tecta sensimwb gementes, ubi praecipuus venae ferreae truncus luxuriat, videbam. An aliud, pinguiusque ab infernis marinis subterfluentibus pabulum, ut in tuo nobilissimo libro decernis,267 et ut mihi nuper Ill.mus Comes Aloysius Marsilius nobilitate, virtute, morum splendore spectatissimuswc per literas communicavit,268 dubius haereo. A supernis enim depluentibus, nitro,269 salibus variis, terrae uliginewd impraegnatis, solaribus radiis excoctis, et 44] luminoso illo, quod totum Orbem animat, imbutis, ebibere nutrimentum subdubito. Analogiam habemus in plantarum seminibus. Tabescunt, siwe solis aquis subterraneis crudo quodam, ac aspero imbutis ingenio irroratae, caelestibus careant. Observavit, te etiam notante, sagax Boyleus,wf metallicam mineram effossam, ac e mineralibus cribratam, et tamquam inutilem aeri expositam post multos annos perfecte eiusdem generis, ponderis, et consistentiae nova reproduxisse mineralia, ac si in totali minerali terra matrice fuissent genita.270 Cur igitur dubie expiscamur awg mari, quod evidenter cernimus in aere? Cur occultum in baratro penu quaerimus, si certum in aprico promocondum habemus? Potuerunt exsucca, et effoeta semina reflorescere rursus in aere, non in aequore poterunt. Condit illud sui generis salia, non omnia, condit hic omnia, non sui tantum generis. Ex utriusque enchyrisi,271wh et effectu nudum clarescit experimentum. Adde, vir clarissime, quod si aquae mineras perluentes, atque foventes suntwi tanta salis marini copia graves, cur degustatae salsum maris amarorem non sapiunt? Cur huius cubica ramenta qualibet in fodina saltem aliis permistawj non eruuntur? Cur ut plurimum aut insipidae, aut vitrioli naturam redolent? Crassam a rudi mea mente rubiginem deterge, nigroque tabo squallentia viarum secreta rursus perlustra. Sed iterumwk ad 45] fontes. 

Plurimi e rigidis horum montiumwl finibus emergunt, et uti dicebamus, uberiores, quam ex vastioribus Divi Alpibus Pellegrini. Inter alios celeberrimus est, qui in Antro ululante (vulgo la Grotta che urla)272 gemit, ibique rursus reconditur. Meridiem versus hoc antrum paulo supra Furnum Volastrum hiat, plurimo tartaro scabrum, tenebrosum, et incondito murmure strepentium undarum terrificum. Os eiusdem terra multa flaviuscula, sabuloque sordescens, quae ab interno plus quam rivulo quando tumente, ac turbido eructantur. Quandowm etenim flante austro, vel aere praeter solitum calente liquescentibus supremi verticis nivibus gliscit,wn et exorbitat, cum totus a caecis canalibus in antri latere excavatis absorberiwo non possit, reverberatus in se recurrens primo in viciniores oras, deinde quacumque parte mox potest inconcessus egurgitat. Ita e specus ostio violenter erumpens, ibi in fine dum detumescit, ac lentescentes undas revocat,wp montanas sordes, et recrementa deponit. Hinc ob humile laqueare nisi curvus advena, et persaepe dorso ipso lutulentus intrat. Emensis viginti circiter pedibus laxatur in latus, altumque spelunca, apparentque multiformia naturae ludentis e lapidoso succo ludibria, qui varias plasmando figuras arte licet nulla laboratas suo artem aequatwq ingenio, materia superat.273wr Nullibi aptius arcuatum Regii hortiws spelaeum e lacunari inversis hinc inde pyramidulis, vivo 46] pumice,wt durisque tophis decussata testudine inflexis elegans simulavitwu in obscuro natura. Tunc aquas tristiwv susurro furtive per obliqua cadentes exaudiebamus,ww quas tandem profundus hiatus in vicinam Petrosanam occulto itinere derivans intortis devorabat vorticibus. Neque hic itineris meta. Supra humeros baiuli rumigerulum translatiwx wy torrentem, multisque scabris superatis callibus ad amplam, convexamque cameram devenimus, in qua complures velut encarpi, mille tartareae concretiones, indurata mille ferrumina, columnas, spiras, animalia, ramos aemulantia miris intexta modis conspiciebantur.274 Hic origo rivuliwz ab alto fluentis, veluti ab epistylio, qui partim tardo coalitu saxis antiquis nova saxa lapidescentibus undis adglutinabat, partim spumosoxa cursu in praeceps per descriptum alveum prolabebatur. Non dispari sane modo, ac e supercilio rupis cadentes aquas saeva hyems aquilonibus asperat, aliis adhuc nativa fluxibilitate ruentibus. 

Unde perennis aquarum fluxus modo limpidus, et modicus, modo sordidus, et tumens quaeris? A vicino mari exantlatas autumant coloni, cum flante austro, furenteque pelago furant, quiescente quiescant. Sed nos aliter suprema montis rimati, revocatisque ad trutinam crescentibus, et decrescentibus undis disserebamus.xb Inter strata negligenter cohaerentia, et inflexo latere 47] curvata deorsum aquae, nivesque solutae percolantur absorptae prius a variis faucibus cautes inter, et bibulas glareas dehiscentibus. Per sulcos inde, ac quasi euripos serpunt secreto tramite ad antrosum fontem continuo scatentem, quia in quibusdam baratris radiis solaribus imperviis rupes a rupibus, montem a monte dividentibus fere perpetuo glacies, ac nives integrae morantur, quae non primis caloribus, cum sol vehementior inter extrema veris nives emollit, cedunt. Lente, ac molliter tabescunt, velutique filtratae per longa temporis spatia descendunt illimes, atque crystallinae. Si vero calidis efflantibus ventis, sicuti cera ad luculentum ignem, ita in liquorem statim extenuatae per subterraneas catharactas ruunt potius, quam fluunt, secumque terras, arenasque transportant.xc Hinc praedictus fons modo limpidus, et aquarum pauper, modo lutosus, et aquarum dives. In cisternis etiam, occultisquexd lacunis forsan recollectae vel per laxa aggerum spiracula sensimxe cribrantur, velutique ad lancem, ac per iustas morulas in fontis pelvim cadunt,xf aut si enormiter turgeant, superatis aggeribus liberiore gurgite devolvuntur. A me assensumxg impetrare non potui, quod a propinquo pelago ortum, et incrementum trahant, quoniamxh si venae, et venulae, ut cum Agricola loquar,xi si canales, et canaliculi275 adeo patent, ut arenam, lapillosque admittant, cur salia, conchulas, 48] pisciculos, marinas quisquilias non excipiunt? At, regeris, amice doctissime, tolluntur in altum vapores, et a saxorum frigore densati in guttas roridas transeunt. Si quandoque turbantur aquae, non ex mari, sed ex superadvenientibus montis rivulisxj una immistis turbantur. Ita communis Italorum opinio. Sed vastissimos hos alembicos neque concipio, neque montium structura, stratisque, veluti assulatim, superimpositis elaborata patitur. Sedxk dato etiam, quod una, aut altera caverna stratorum ilia, ut ita dicas, discerpat, et antrosas cavitates efformet, concretixl in guttas aqueas vapores rursus in ima vel perpendiculariter, vel perpendiculatim defluent, ut in obviis specubus, humidisque fornicibus continuo observamus, non circum alembici interna recurva labraxm recollectae in unum coibunt laterale foramen, ut exeant. Quis enim unquam ivit in viscera terrae, et laboratoria chimica adeo exacte perfecta vidit? Fingimus saepe, quae nostro sistemati, non quae rerum naturae congruunt. Casu, non polidedalaexn matris instituto excavantur antra, quae si secreta cum mari commercia teneant, quod etiam gratis dicitur, fractis scilicet, usque ad ultimas montium radices saxorum fibris, et ordinibus, vapores marini per obscura spatia ascendentes rursus in mare substratum probabilius ruent, quam per imaginarias fistulas, aut cogitatas subgrundas,xo tam affabre circum haerentia, delabentur in latus. Adde, quod aqua maris, uti nemo nescit, per alembicos distillata secum volatiles salium moleculas perpetuo rapit, ex quarum continuo potu sanguis cum urina cietur,276 uti plurimo patuit experimento, qua labe praedicti montani fontes certo certius carent. Dulcissimae namque sunt, potuque in longum aevum colonis omnibus saluberrimae. At alibi particulari epistola XXIII.r]xp XXIII.v]xq quid de his sentiam fusius enucleabo.277 Equidem, dicam cum Platone in Protagora, arbitror nos invicem nonnihil debere concedere, et de iis, quae dictentur, ambigere quidem simul, contendere vero nunquam. Ambigunt porro propter benevolentiam cum amicis amici, contendunt vero adversarii, et hostes.278 Patere igitur interim sine temeritatis nota, quod asseram nostrarum Alpium fontes, rivos, flumina, quae ad subiectum praecipue Padum suum tributum devehunt, omnes, et omnia pluviis, nivibusque liquatis deberi. Quid de Dannubio, de Rheno, de Rhodano, aliisque regiis fluminibus sentiam, ignoro. Obstupescimus sane magna nomina, et de origine grandia opinamur, quoniam eorundem initia non novimus. Si vastissimos montes, immensas regiones, solitudines maximas aeternis fere niviumxr glomis, et duratura in perpetuum bruma rigentes oculis ipsis perlustraremus, cederetxs forsan 49] in risum stupor, nec montes mari, nec maria montibus immisceremus. 

Nullum ver usquam, nullique aestatis honores,
sola iugis habitat diris, sedesque tuetur
perpetuas deformis hyems.279xt
 

Tantum enim illi nostras Alpes in omnibus superant, quantum 

Delphinoxu balena Britannica maior.280
 

Assuetus nostris aestivis ardoribusxv animus, multis aridissimis mensibus involutus praeconcepta nescit deradere, dubitans repugnare experimento, quod vix concipere potest. Facilis est mendacioxw locus, quando ignota sunt extrema. Ut plurimum, quae longo regionum tractu dissita confusa quadam imagine arrectas trahebant mentes, visa, aut contrectata fatiscunt. Parva interim de parvis, sed oculo teste, diximus, tu faelicior magna de magnis. Multo mihi maius benefitium conferes (dicam cum Euthydemo, vel litigioso in Platone), si inscitia liberaverisxx animum, quam si aegritudine corpus. Mirificum enim hoc habeo bonum, quod me servat, quoniam sine rubore verecundiae ad discendum me preparo.281 Non enim immortalitatem negotiaturus haec informi papyro levidensia scribo, sedxy ut a te veritatem detracto peplo percipiam, et ingenuis artibus vacem. Si conscientiae meae audivissem consilia, silere sane debuissem, sed sciendi cupiditas, non humana vetuitxz ambitio. Macte igitur animo, amicorum suavissime. Primitiae meorum 50] itinerum, laborisque novi crepundia, quae plus naturae, quam artis sapiunt, tui sudata calami momenta sentiant. A te, cuius ingenium naviter in his materiis detritum est, maiorem suae lucis partem expectant. Non sit haec ampullosa ingeniorum digladiatio, non amarulenta logomachia, quae nos transversos agat, quae ob aestum pugnae dulce foedus amicitiae discerpat. Has despuimus curas, nec subtristi cartas aspergimus absintio. Eviscerata terra, quae diu ante dissimulaverat, te auctoreya prodat, me solum, ut altius refodias amica asperitate adversante. Fabulis alii antiquis suas adnectant imaginatas fabellas, et dura ingenii conditione occupatissimas inanitates effutiant. Miramur studia, miseramur labores. Tu medullam erue, quae dulce sapiat, quae plene nutriat, quae tota pectori sano accedat. 

Urbium, populorumque luctamina, licet nos plectant, licet in insontibus agris in exitium sui mitissimis furor adhuc transalpini ferri mandata fatorum peragat, dulcesque Patriae reliquias immistis cum atro cruore lacrymis foedatas rursus videam, dolorem nihilominus literulis concoquo, musasque ob Iani templum tot iam annos apertumyb plorantes282 naturae miraculis ad dulcia agrestis calami solamina provoco. Quid interim alia narrareyc paret epistola, tanquam secundarios fructus, accipe. Nondum tamen omnes 51] recte maturuerunt, longioresque circuitus, novosque labores desiderant. 

1Herbas, ac plantas omnes mutinenses alpinas rizotomis expetendas. 

2Crystallos alios, crystalloides, lapides speculares, vel selenites, salia fossilia, lapides picturatos, sculptos, figuratos, medicos, calcarios, gypseos, pretiosos etc. 

3Strata montium lapidea, cretacea, glareosa, sabulosa, terrea etc., unde nata, quo flectantur, quo tendant, eorundem necessitas, usus, anatomes etc. 

4Antediluviana dicta, et postdiluviana corpora, quae in istis reperiuntur vel lapidefacta, vel intra lapides clausa, vel terrae solum visceribus involuta, vel sint conchae, serpentes, pisces, echini, limaces, ostreae, pectines, tubuli, animalium ossa, ligna, fructus etc. 

5Montium exteriorum crustam, terrarum omnium indolem,yd saxorum, fluorum, tartarearum marmorumye concretionum enucleationem.yf Hyaspides283yg enim in ultimis Alpibus videbamyh orientalibus aemulos. 

6Cuius libet montis usque ad mare Tyrenum ingenium particulare, pascua, usumyi etc. 

7Insecta quae rariora scopulis in illis herbis, plantisve nidificant. 

8Quae volatilia, quinamyj quadrupedes, quinamyk in rivulis, fontibus, torrentibus etc. Pisces etc. 

9Qui fructus, quae grana, qualis omnibus nostris monticolisyl cibus, et potus. 52] 

10Qui mores, artes, domus, morbi, tormenta, deliciae. 

11Quodnam aeris pondus ad lancem barometricam ductum, quae temperies quaesitaym thermometro. 

12Quae montium altitudo, rimae, lapsus, decrementum etc. 

13Aliorum fontium, fluminum, torrentium, thermarum, minerarum etc. exactior descriptio. 

14De lacte, et operibus lactariis, prout praeparantur in Alpibus nostris. 

15Minerarum omnium attenta, et exacta descriptio.284 

Haec sunt, quae humeris tanta ferre forsan recusantibus imponere auderem, sed 

maxima parvo
tempore molimur.285
 

Alia interim loqui (dicam cum Petrarca, Praefat. Tom. 2) censorum praemordacium etiam iubet metus, qui nihil scribentes, quod iudicari queat, de aliorum iudicant ingeniis; impudentissima temeritas, quae solo silentio tuta est. Complosis in littore manibus sedenti facile est ferre, quam velit de gubernatoris arte sententiam.286 Sedyn te video prolixa 53] nimis fatigatum epistola. Scias tamen velim, quod telam hanc soloci licet filo, ac diversicoloribus liciis contextam cupide, et quasi de industria protraxerim, quoniam vultum tuum, licet per tot terras dissitum praesentem fecit. Caeterum, si stabilis sedes, et frustra semper quaesitum otium contigerit, uti supralaudatus autor de se ipso scribebat, nobiliorem forsan, et certe uniformem tuo nomini meditor ordiri. Vale mei memor, teque sospitetyo Deus. 

In Musaeo meo Patavinoyp kal. Ianuarii 1705 

Devictissimus, et Addictissimus Famulus 

Antonius Vallisnerius de Nobilibus de Vallisneria 

Publicus Medicinae Practicae Professor in Loco, et 

Regiae Societatis Anglicanae Sodalis. Etc. 54] 

Footnotes

[1]

This is a passage from Marcus Tullius Cicero’s Epistulae ad Atticum ((Cicero n.d.), II, 1, http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0474.phi057.perseus-lat1:2.1.1).

[2]

These anonymous initials seem to indicate that the manuscript was translated into Latin from a previous Italian version, and not by Vallisneri himself. However, there are important hints that this may be a pretense. The handwriting in the main manuscript is unmistakably Vallisneri’s: since the document was draft (and a significantly reworked one, too), it is unlikely that he copied again the entire Latin text from another document, which in turn was a translation from an Italian text he had already edited. Furthermore, several studies prove that Vallisneri often used false names, or the names of his pupils, as a strategy to conceal and protect himself against potential criticisms—which in this case may have been addressed to the prose style of the document or to terminological misunderstandings. On this topic, see (Generali 2004), 155–156, 176–177; (2007), 383–412; (Luzzini 2013a), 91; (2014a), 209. It is worth noting that the same initials (and, arguably, the same anonymous translator, whether real or not) appear—with an additional “S” in the end—in (Vallisneri 1717c).

[3]

Accademia dei Muti (“Academy of the Mute Ones”) of Reggio. Founded in 1673, it was mainly devoted to poetry and literature. It ceased to exist in 1751, after decades of senescence and—it seems—not particularly brilliant activity. On this topic, see (Maylender 1929), 65–67. Vallisneri became a member of the Academy in 1711, after he was appointed the Chair of Theoretical Medicine at the University of Padua. See (Porcia (di) 1733), LXXVII. See also the critical edition of this work: (Porcia (di) 1986), 219–220, 220n.

[4]

Here, the author alludes to the French scholars. As a proud advocate of Italian science, language, and culture, Vallisneri was frequently involved in fierce debates with the “oltramontani” (literally, “those beyond the mountains”). On this topic, see (Duchesneau 2009), CXII, CXXI, CXLV; (Generali 1985); (2006); (2007), 384–386; (???), 253–255; (2011a); (Luzzini 2007), 74; (2013a), 217–226; (Monti 2009), XLVIII, LII, LXVIII, LXXI, LXXVIII; (Penso 1973), 194–201; (Rappaport 1991) (now reprinted in (2011)); (1997), 218–219. See also (Vallisneri 1991), 519–520.

[5]

Gypsum (CaSO4· 2H2O) is a mineral usually found in evaporitic deposits in association with sedimentary rocks. The gypsum layers of Mount Gesso are part of the gypsum-sulphur formation of the northern Apennines, whose thick evaporitic strata resulted from the Messinian salinity crisis which occurred in the late Miocene epoch (between 5.95 and 5.33 million years ago). During this epoch, a temporary closure of the Strait of Gibraltar made the Mediterranean Sea desiccate almost completely. This event originated the evaporitic rocks which are now visible along the northern borders of the Apennines, from Reggio Emilia to the Marche region. On this topic, see (Bosellini 2005), 66–67; (Luzzini 2011a), 105–107; (2011b); (2013a), 71–72; http://www.vallisneri.it/affioramenti_gessosi.shtml.

[6]

The Tresinaro River flows in the Province of Reggio Emilia. It is a tributary of the Secchia River. It originates in Felina (Castelnovo ne’ Monti, RE) and goes from southwest to northeast, eventually reaching Scandiano.

[7]

Luigi d’Este Juniore (1648–1698), Governor of Reggio and Marquess of Scandiano. See (Vallisneri 1991), 116.

[8]

The sulphur (S) veins in the gypsum-sulphur formation of the northern Apennines result from the biochemical activity of bacteria. Under anaerobic conditions, sulfate reducing bacteria produce hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) from sulfate (SO4) in gypsum. H2S is then oxidized to elemental sulphur if exposed to oxygen. See (Casati 1996), 518–519; (Bosellini 2005), 66–67; (Bosellini, Mutti, and Ricci Lucchi 1989), 133–169; (Luzzini 2011b); (2011a), 106–107; (2013a), 72.

[9]

The letter is addressed to Luigi dalla Fabra (1655–1723), Primary Lecturer of Medicine at the University of Ferrara until 1721. See (Vallisneri 1991), 363.

[10]

Conrad Gessner (1516–1565), Swiss naturalist and bibliographer.

[11]

Johann Jakob Scheuchzer (1672–1733), Swiss physician and naturalist, friend and correspondent of Vallisneri. For comprehensive studies on the collaboration between Vallisneri and Scheuchzer, see (Generali 2007), 106, 118, 121, 124, 136, 294, 352–354, 356, 358, 360, 364–366, 384, 387, 389; (Luzzini 2011d), 114–122; (2013a), 59–64, 69, 81–84, 118, 162, 165–170, 173, 175, 193, 208.

[12]

Ippolito Spallanzani, from Scandiano, superintendent of the mines of Mount Gesso, friend and collaborator of Vallisneri. He wrote a letter on the changes that occurred in the mines between 1705 and 1714. This was published in (Vallisneri 1718), 228–284 (269–278). See (Vallisneri 1991), 163, 165–166; (Generali 2004), 144.

[13]

Paolo Valli, a canon from Reggio, correspondent of Vallisneri. See (Vallisneri 1991), 408–409.

[14]

The related image is missing. Still nowadays, the Italian term “cretone” refers to a thick clay layer which can be found inside or outside caves and mines.

[15]

Mineral sulphur (S).

[16]

Selenite (CaSO4· 2H2O), a crystalline mineral variety of gypsum. In most cases, and depending on the degree of purity, it is transparent and colorless, or variously whitish. A further, detailed description of this mineral can be found in (Vallisneri 1733), 435–436. See also the critical edition of this work ((Vallisneri 2012), 258–260).

[17]

Potassium nitrate (KNO3).

[18]

The term “vitriolum” (“vitriol”) refers to various kinds of metallic sulfates, including sulphuric acid (H2SO4).

[19]

This is a latinization of the Ancient Greek word ἐγχείρησις (literally, “undertaking,” “operation,” or “task”).

[20]

(Ramazzini 1700), Cap. X, De morbis quibus temari solent sulphurarii. Page references are to the second edition, (Ramazzini 1703), 57–60. For a study of the bibliographical sources used by Ramazzini in this treatise, see (Di Pietro 1981).

[21]

Syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. Also known as “morbus gallicus,” “mal francese,” or—in English—“French disease” or “French scabies,” since one of the first epidemics occurred when the French troops invaded Italy in the last decade of the XV century, at the very beginning of the Italian Wars. See (Gelmetti 2015).

[22]

In early modern medicine, the term “anchora sacra” (literally, “sacred anchor”) referred to what was considered to be the most effective medication for a particular disease. On this topic, see (Vallisneri 2006), 61, note 172.

[23]

The reference is to a passage from Pliny the Younger’s Letters ((Plinius (Minor) n.d.), VIII, 16), where the Roman author reflects on the strange contradictory relationship between grief and pleasure: “Est enim quaedam etiam dolendi voluptas, praesertim si in amici sinu defleas, apud quem lacrimis tuis vel laus sit parata vel venia” (http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi1318.phi001.perseus-lat1:8.16.5).

[24]

This is a passage from Virgil’s Aeneid ((Vergilius n.d.), IX, 349, http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0690.phi003.perseus-lat1:9.314-9.366).

[25]

(Ramazzini 1703), 59: “Nec quis obtrudat, quod sulphur pulmonum balsamum vulgo audiat; nam id verum est quando sulphur acido suo, quo abundat, spoliatum fuerit.” Like Ramazzini, Vallisneri refers to (Jüngken 1681), Sectio IV, De mineralibus, Cap. VI, Anatomia sulphuris, 258: “In vitiis pulmonum, phthisi, peste, febribus malignis, &c. insigne praeservativum & curativum.”

[26]

The same quote is in (Ramazzini 1703), 59. The (altered) passage is taken from (Ettmüller 1688), Tomus II, Pars I, Schröderi dilucidati Mineralogia, Sive Regnum Minerale, Cap. 9, De metallis, 283: “Caeterum observatur, quod tunc temporis verum balsamum pulmonum mereatur vocari, quando pinguedo balsamica separata est a parte acida corrosiva.”

[27]

(Ettmüller 1688), 284–285. The Latin term “flores” (“flowers”), in early modern medicine, refers to a preparation obtained by sublimation or crystallization of a substance which assumes “a flocculent or pulverulent form” ((Gould 1904), see Flores). “Flores sulphuris” were particularly renowned and used as a remedy against various kinds of illnesses (especially against skin, bronchial, and lung diseases). On this topic, see (Crosland 2006), 71; (Vallisneri 2011), 72, notes 214 and 215.

[28]

Vallisneri recalls the famous episode of the Plague of Athens (429–430 BC), when Hippocrates recommended the use of fumigation by burning aromatic substances (including sulphur, regarded as a powerful antidote against this disease) to treat and contain the epidemic. See (Morens and Littman 1992); (Blancou 1995).

[29]

Here, the term “flores” seems to indicate small, naturally formed crystals, and not the previously described artificial preparations.

[30]

Luigi Ferdinando Marsili (1658–1730), naturalist and former Holy Roman Empire officer. Correspondent and collaborator of Vallisneri, who considered him an authority on the Earth sciences (and greatly admired his museum of natural curiosities). On this topic, see (Generali 2007), 351–360; (Luzzini 2013a), 88–90; (2014a), 207–208; (Sarti 2003); (Stoye 1994); (Vaccari 2003); (2008).

[31]

Vittorio Francesco Stancari, from Bologna (1678–1709), astronomer, mathematician, physicist, and naturalist. In 1708, he was appointed the first Chair of Mathematical Analysis ever established in Italy, at the University of Bologna. See (Vallisneri 1991), 301.

[32]

Arguably, a piece of marl. The noun “cretam” (“clay”) and the adjective “uliginosam” (“wet,” or “damp”) suggest than the specimen is more argillaceous than calcareous.

[33]

Mineral sulphur (S).

[34]

The term “chalchantum” is a synonym for vitriol. See (Fabri 1671), 192–193.

[35]

Mineral sulphur (S).

[36]

Mineral sulphur (S).

[37]

Arguably, a sort of calcareous clay, as is suggested by the adjective “subalbam” (“whitish”).

[38]

“Caput mortuum” (in English, “dead head”), also known as “nigredo”: alchemical terms referring to the residual substance produced from such operations as sublimation, distillation, or filtration (see (Crosland 2006), 81). Here, Vallisneri uses this term in a broader sense, alluding to the residual earth from which sulphur has been extracted.

[39]

See note 29.

[40]

Pyrite, an iron sulfide mineral (FeS2) with a cubic crystallographic structure. However, the words “incertae figurae” (“with a strange form”) suggest that the author refers also to marcasite, another iron sulfide (known as “white iron pyrite”). This mineral has an orthorhombic crystal structure, is lighter and more friable than pyrite, and is frequently associated with marl, gypsum, and clay, as typically happens in the gypsum-sulphur formation of the northern Apennines. See (Luzzini 2013a), 94; (2014a), 210–211; (Vallisneri 2012), 209–211, 277.

[41]

According to the Hermetic alchemist, philosopher, and physician Paracelsus (Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, 1493–1541), “life was sustained […] through the presence of a life spirit essential for both the organic and inorganic worlds. By the final decade of the sixteenth century this spirit was identified as an aerial niter” ((Debus 2001), 12); and, by the early years of the seventeenth century, “the aerial niter had become associated with a life force requisite for man” that would be examined and debated by a great number of physicians and natural philosophers throughout the early modern period ((Debus 1977), 108–109). In the XVII century, the chemist and physician John Mayow (1641–1679) further developed the research on the role played by aerial niter in combustion and respiration, paving the way for the identification of this substance with oxygen (see also (Debus 1964)). By acknowledging the existence of an aerial niter and the influence of this substance on mineral genesis and growth, Vallisneri is presumably referring to the Paracelsian tradition.

[42]

Here, Vallisneri makes a distinction between marcasite (“frustillatim dissolvitur”) and the far more stable pyrite (“aeternum est, ac immutabile”).

[43]

Rio Riazzone, a small tributary of the Tresinaro River. The two streams merge a few kilometers north from the city of Scandiano. Along its course, the Riazzone crosses clays, clay-schists, and arenaceous and calcareous shales. These rocks date back to the Late Cretaceous period (100–65 Ma) and contain a large quantity of marine fossils. Proceeding further, the Riazzone meets fossiliferous, blue-grey shale beds which date back to the Late Pliocene epoch (3.6–2.5 Ma). Cartographic source: (“Carta Geologica d’Italia, Foglio 86 (Modena)” 1963). See (Luzzini 2013a), 95, note 95.

[44]

Tusk shells, or scaphopods (Phylum Mollusca, Class Scaphopoda), once known as “antales” and “dentales.” On this topic, see (Encyclopaedia Perthensis; or Universal Dictionary of the Arts, Sciences, Literature, Etc., Intended to Supersede the Use of Other Books of Reference 1816), 574. See also (Vallisneri 2012), 130–131.

[45]

From (Buonanni 1681), 143: “Cannelletti di varie specie, detti tubuli vermiculares, poiché in tutti vivono alcuni vermi. Sogliono nascere sopra i sassi, o sopra gusci di altri testacei, e d’altri vegetabili del mare. Tutti si piegano, come i serpenti, ma senza regola di linea spirale, onde non si possono dire turbinati.” See also (Vallisneri 2012), 76–77. According to the images in Buonanni’s treatise (Tab. 20), the “tubuli vermiformes” could be identified as both tube worms of the Family Serpulidae (Phylum Anellida, Class Polychaeta: sessile anellids which secrete calcareous tubes) and worm snails of the Family Vermetidae (Phylum Mollusca, Class Gastropoda: sessile molluscs with irregular, tubular shells).

[46]

Genus Pecten (Phylum Mollusca, Class Bivalvia). See also (Vallisneri 2012), 251.

[47]

Gastropod shells (Phylum Mollusca, Class Gastropoda). See (Vallisneri 2012), 63, 373.

[48]

Shark teeth. The popular folklore, along with not a few voices from the early modern medical tradition, endowed these objects with therapeutic and thaumaturgic properties. A legend claimed them as the petrified tongues of snakes (hence the term “glossopetrae”) that had been cursed by a particularly vengeful Saint Paul when one of these animals dared to bite the Apostle in Malta. The recognition of the organic origin of these findings involved such authors as Nicolas Steno (1638–1686), Agostino Scilla (1639–1700), Fabio Colonna (1567–1650), and many more, and played a major role in the early modern debate on the age of the Earth. See (Colonna 1616a), 31–39; (Scilla 1670); (Stensen 1667); (1669). For comprehensive studies on this topic, see (Carpita 2006); (Cutler 2009); (Hsu 2009); (Luzzini 2013a), 1–4, 10–12, 17–18, 24–32; (Morello 1979a); (1979b); (Oldroyd 1996), 66–67; (Rudwick 1972), 50–53; (Ziggelaar 2009). See also (Vallisneri 2012), 168–169.

[49]

According to the terminology of early modern natural philosophy, the term “umbilicus maris” (“sea navel,” also known as “Venus navel” or “sea eye”), refers to the calcareous operculum of various species of gastropods. See (Gimma 1730), Book V, 248; (Rolfe 2013), 149. See also (Vallisneri 2012), 394.

[50]

Sea urchin skeletons (Phylum Echinodermata, Class Echinoidea). See also (Vallisneri 2012), 140–141, 306–307.

[51]

Secchia River, a main tributary of the Po River. For a terminological history of this name, see (Tiraboschi 1825), 333–335.

[52]

Fossil coal. It is the result of the build-up and sedimentation of organic matter (usually from plants) in an anoxic environment. The increasing thickness of organic layers leads to a gradual increase in temperature and pressure. Hence the ejection of volatile matter and water, along with the increase in carbon percentage. This is a gradual process, which starts from the lower sedimentary strata and passes through different phases. Depending on the increasing carbon percentage, the resulting matter is called peat, lignite, sub-bituminous coal, bituminous coal, and anthracite. Typically, coal seams form in lagoons, either coastal or in a river delta. The Po Plain was originally a lagoon that evolved into a wetland; however, since this zone is still geologically young, exploitable coal reserves have not formed yet. The “carbo petrae” and the “ligna fossilia” found by Vallisneri, therefore, were probably a sort of lignite or low-carbon coal. See (Luzzini 2011b), 345–349; (2013a), 77–78.

[53]

Adige River, in northeastern Italy. It flows into the Adriatic Sea. For a historical study on the regulation of this river during the XVIII century, see (Luzzini 2016c).

[54]

The terminology in this passage is clearly rooted in the alchemical tradition, as it recalls different stages of the sublimation process. The “terra virgo” (“virgin earth”), in particular, is what remains of the earth after it has been purified by sublimation. On this topic, see (Newman 1982).

[55]

Vallisneri is probably referring to an episode in the Italian Wars (1494–1559). In the region surrounding Mount Gesso, the only place with the word “prato” (from the Latin “pratum”) in its name is Prato Mandeto, the origin of the latter term being unknown. Significantly, this place is located west of Mount Gesso. Cartographic sources: (“Carta Topografica d’Italia, Serie 25V, 086 – IV – NE (Scandiano),” n.d.); (“Carta Topografica d’Italia, Serie 25V, 086 – IV – SE (Viano),” n.d.). See also http://www.pcn.minambiente.it/viewer/.

[56]

Arguably, flint rocks with dark (“subcineritios”) impurities.

[57]

Pyrite, marcasite, and flints were widely used as fire starters.

[58]

The related image is missing.

[59]

A “digitus” (“finger”) was an ancient Roman unit of length, approximately equivalent to 1.85 cm (0.728 in). Therefore, a “semidigitus” (“half a finger”) is about 0.925 cm (0.364 in).

[60]

Johann Jakob Scheuchzer became a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1703. Given the lack of images, and despite the rather detailed description, it is difficult to ascertain the identity of the “ungulas lapidefactas” (“stony hooves,” or “stony claws”).

[61]

(Colonna 1616b), 48: “Habemus et non paucas alias res lapideas, veluti caprarum et suum ungulas […].” Colonna’s treatise does not provide an image of these fossils. However, according to their name they could be ascribed to the bivalve species Congeria ungulacaprae, also known as “goat’s hooves.” See (Főzy and Szente 2014), 350–351.

[62]

(Lhwyd 1699), 63–68, Tab. 16. The images in the treatise allow one to identify Lhwyd’s “plectronites” as teeth from different fish species (see (Parkinson 1811), 254; (1822), 275. However, according to paleontologists Arthur Smith Woodward and Charles Davies Sherborn, plectronites n. 1318 (“Plectronites maximus corticeus, seu Rostrago maxima, quod rostrum quoddam avis simulare videatur, sic dicta,” (Lhwyd 1699), 66) is an exception: this tooth does not belong to a fish, but to the pliosaur Polyptychodon interruptus. See (Smith Woodward and Sherborn 1890), 298.

[63]

Actually, the correct book is not (Plot 1677) but (Plot 1686), 189, Tab. XII, Figs. 3, 4. Vallisneri could not read English: most likely, he obtained this information from Scheuchzer. Not by chance, the same data appear in (Scheuchzer 1708), 33–34. This essay was published well after Vallisneri wrote his manuscript; arguably, Scheuchzer gave him this information in a previous letter.

[64]

A “Caryophyllus marinus fossilis prope Bononiam inventus” is mentioned in (Scheuchzer 1708), 33, and in (Scheuchzer 1723), 75: “Caryophyllus marinus fossilis. Ex Agro Bononiensi.” Probably, the specimen came from Scheuchzer’s collection. This could explain why Vallisneri was aware of its existence before the Piscium querelae et vindiciae was published.

[65]

The related image is missing.

[66]

(Scilla 1670). The reference is probably to the figures in Tabs. XIV and XVII, described at p. 166. As the images in Scilla’s and Plot’s treatises clearly show, the terms “corniculum” (“little horn”), “fungites,” and “caryophyllus marinus fossilis” are all names to describe fossil madrepores (Order Scleractinia): a group of stony corals (Phylum Cnidaria, Class Anthozoa). See (Luzzini 2013a), 184–185, note 142; (Vallisneri 2012), 207–208.

[67]

All of these terms refer to selenite crystals with various degrees of purity. On Vallisneri’s vast and renowned museum, see (Dal Prete 2011); (Generali 2007), 351–382; (Luzzini 2011a), 108; (2013a), 82–84, 90, 159–165. See also (Vallisneri 2012), 258–260, 315–316.

[68]

See the previous note. Here, it must be pointed out that the term “talcum” (“talc”) does not exactly correspond to its modern meaning (i.e., the magnesium silicate with the chemical formula Mg3Si4O10(OH)2). At least up to the second half of the XVIII century, this word was used to describe a vast array of minerals with a sheet-like structure, such as micas (phyllosilicates), actual talc, or selenite.

[69]

Mount Kamor (1,751 m/5,745 ft above sea level), in the Appenzell Alps (northeastern Switzerland).

[70]

(Scheuchzer 1702), 49.

[71]

Riano (Province of Rome).

[72]

Scheuchzer’s Dialogus was eventually published four years later, in (Scheuchzer 1709).

[73]

This is a passage from Pliny the Elder’s Naturalis Historia ((Plinius (Maior) n.d.), XXXVII, 50, http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0978.phi001.perseus-lat1:37.50). The identity of these specimens is uncertain. Besides, as Scheuchzer’s Dialogus remarks, the legendary “androdamas” mentioned by Pliny had been identified by various authors with many different minerals ((Scheuchzer 1709), 204–208).

[74]

Accademia degli Inquieti (“Academy of the Restless Ones”) of Bologna. It was founded in 1690 by the mathematician and astronomer Eustachio Manfredi (1674–1739). Reflecting the interests of its founder, the academy was devoted to the study of mathematical and scientific issues. Following the guidance of Luigi Ferdinando Marsili, in 1712 the institution moved to Palazzo Poggi, and in 1714 became the still existing Accademia delle Scienze dell’Istituto di Bologna (“Academy of Sciences of the Institute of Bologna”). On this topic, see (Cavazza 1990); (Cremante and Tega 1984); (De Zan 1990); (Sarti 2003); http://www.accademiascienzebologna.it/en/academy-of-sciences-of-bologna-institute.

[75]

The barren, sterile landscape described by Vallisneri is easily recognizable as calanchi (“badlands”), heavily eroded clay soils that are particularly common in the hills between Scandiano and Carpineti. The spectacular display of colors (“rudis colorum varietas”) in the layers reveals the presence of different minerals and rocks. See (Regione Emilia-Romagna 2006), 77; (Senna and Martinello 2000), 77, 86.

[76]

Most likely, iron-rich sedimentary rocks containing pyrite grains. Not by chance, pyrite is also known as “fool’s gold” (in Italian, “oro degli stolti”).

[77]

Querciola, in the territory of Regnano (this place is now part of Viano, in the Province of Reggio Emilia). A salsa is a peculiar phenomenon of secondary volcanism. It is a cold, muddy mixture composed of water, clay, carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons (usually methane and oil) leaking out from the ground. Once the mud reaches the surface, it dries near the crater and accumulates, forming little mud volcanoes a few meters tall. The gas leak from the surface is caused by slow and constant movements of the Earth’s crust: these trigger the underground sacks in which the mixture is enclosed to open or to compress. The volcanoes grow in height if the mud leak is faster than water erosion; oppositely, they tend to decline. The term “salsa” means “salty,” as the mixture contains NaCl. Its salinity is equivalent to 1/2–1/3 of sea water. The salse are also described in (Vallisneri 1711), 352–353; (1728), 65–70. On this topic, see (Luzzini 2011b), 341–343; (2013a), 74–77; (2014a), 211; (2014b); http://www.comune.viano.re.it.

[78]

During the XVIII century, the salse of Regnano were much more active than now. The last two considerable emissions happened in 1915 and in 1932, the former going on for 15 days. The—often—violent eruptions involved size enlargements of craters and the formation of vertical fissures in the ground. In one of the most significant episodes, described in 1796 by the physician Domenico Gentili (1744–1825), the mud mass collapsed and caused a landslide in the fields beneath ((Gentili 1833)). In the last few decades, the mud volcanoes have entered a phase of relative dormancy: the portion of land covered with mud, therefore, has gradually decreased. In 2007, during an excursion in Querciola performed together with Dario Generali, Stefano Meloni and Oscar Poli, only some small gas leaks were noticed in the main craters (http://www.vallisneri.it/salse_bituminose.shtml).

[79]

This is a passage from Virgil’s Aeneid ((Vergilius n.d.), III, 575–577, http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0690.phi003.perseus-lat1:3.570-3.587). Here and below, the English translation follows (Vergilius 1910).

[80]

According to Hippocratic and Galenic medical tradition (which, still in the early XVIII century, had a strong influence on early modern medicine and on medical terminology), health depended on a balance between four basic fluids in the body, called humours: blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm. Humours were the metabolic counterparts of the four basic elements (air, fire, earth, water), and were also related to a combination of four essential qualities: hot, cold, wet, and dry. Blood was thought to be hot and wet; black bile, cold and dry; phlegm, cold and wet; yellow bile was hot and dry. All diseases, as well as the existence of four main human temperaments (sanguine, choleric, melancholic, phlegmatic), were explained by the predominance of one humour over the others. For an introductory essay on this subject, see (French 2003).

[81]

Synovia, or synovial fluid: a viscous fluid which is found in the cavities of synovial joints (knees, elbows, hips, etc.) of mammals. By acting as a lubricant, it aids in the mechanical function of joints. Typically, synovial pathologies include rheumatic fever, osteoarthritis, gout, rheumatoid arthritis, tumors, and several other diseases.

[82]

Vallisneri started studying the salse in 1694, when he was serving as general practitioner in Scandiano. As a physician, he also focused on the clinical effects of the oily mud pouring out from the volcanoes. This resulted to be “very effective to desiccate tumours, mainly those on the legs,” as he scribbled down in one of his early field books, the Quaderni di Osservazioni (“Quella terra, che vomita fuori è bonissima per esiccare i tumori particolarmente delle gambe,” (Vallisneri 1694), Biblioteca Estense di Modena, Raccolta Campori, 701–707, γ. D. 6, 36–42; (2004), 41).

[83]

Rio Faggiano, a small tributary of the Tresinaro River. The two streams meet in Rondinara, a village southwest of Scandiano.

[84]

The book from the Naturalis Historia mentioned in the manuscript is incorrect (and, moreover, does not exist). The exact reference is (Plinius (Maior) n.d.), XXXVII, 49: “dendrachates, quae velut arbusculis insignis est” (http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0978.phi001.perseus-lat1:37.49).

[85]

(Scheuchzer 1700). Dendrites (from the Ancient Greek word δένδρον, “tree”) are tree-like crystal structures, typically iron and/or manganese oxi-hydroxides that form on the surface of rocks or between sedimentary layers. They are quite common in limestone and sandstone beds. On this topic, see (Rudolph 2014), 30–32. See also (Vallisneri 2012), 129–130.

[86]

(De Boodt 1609), Liber II, De Lapidibus et Gemmis in specie, Cap. CCXXXVIII, De Stalagmite, 207: “Stalagmites e guttis rotundis in lapidem gypseae substantiae conversis, totus coagmentatur in terra arenosa, qui pro terrae et aquae fluentis qualitate, modo fulcus, candidus, aut griseus fabarum, pisorum, vel coriandri refert magnitudinem. Reperiuntur in una massa plurimi quasi favis inclusi. Copiose isti in Thermis Carolinis”); Cap. CCXXXIX, De Hammite seu ammonite, 207–209: “Ammites vel ammonites ex arenis ita componitur, ut ovis piscium similis videatur, nucis iuglandis est magnitudine, aliquando maior […]. Huius generis reperiuntur qui ex lapillis pisi aut orobi magnitude constant, quos ammites maiores aut pisolithos recte vocare possis.”

[87]

(Gessner 1565): “Hammites ovis piscium similis est, et alia velut nitro composita, praedura alioquin […]. Ammonites […] ex arenis ita componitur, ut ovis piscium quod ad figuram attinet, similis videatur esse: nitro interdum, quod ad substantiam et colorem”; Cap. VII, De lithophytis, et rebus fossilibus illis, quae plantas imitantur, 118–121: “Leguminum specie lapidem quidam inveniuntur, pisis […] aut lentibus similes […].”

[88]

(Imperato 1672), 588: “È anco un’altra differenza di pietra, o terra composta di piccole forme ritonde simili a pisi, de’ quali ciascuno sino all’ultimo disfacimento si scioglie in cruste bianche, e sottili, che l’una abbraccia l’altra. Dunque ciascun grano è composto di più tuniche, e la pietra tutta composta di molti grani accozzati insieme […].”

[89]

(De Monconys 1665), 313: “[…] vis à vis à main gauche est un champ où l’on dit que la Vierge passant par là, trouva des païsans qui semoient des pois, elle les pria de luy en donner, ils luy dirent que c’estoient des pierres; à quoy elle repartit qu’ils en recueilliroient, et depuis il n’y peut rien croistre que des pierres lesquelles ont la figure des pois […].”

[90]

Karlovy Vary (Carlsbad), a spa town in the western Czech Republic renowned for its thermal springs.

[91]

The reference is to (De Boodt 1609), 207; (Gessner 1565); Cap. VII, 118–121. As the images and descriptions in De Boodt’s, Gessner’s, and Imperato’s treatises show, the terms “globuli lapidei,” “stalagmites e guttis rotundis in lapidem gypseae substantiae conversis,” “pisiformes concretiones,” “lapides pisis aut lentibus similes,” “piccole forme ritonde simili a pisi,” etc. describe pisolite: a sedimentaty rock made of concretionary, calcareous grains that looks like a conglomeration of small pea-shaped spheres from 2–3 mm (0.08–0.1 in) up to a few cm in diameter. However, such descriptions as “ova piscium in massas conglutinata, et petrificata,” “ammites vel ammonites […] ovis piscium similes,” etc., refer to oolites, sedimentary rocks composed of very small, spheroidal grains of no more than 2 mm (0.08 in) in diameter. Hence their name, as they typically look like fish eggs. Arguably, the specimens (“globuli lapidei”) described by Vallisneri are pisolites, these rocks being rather common in the in the gypsum-sulphur formation of the northern Apennines. See (De Waele, Forti, and Rossi 2011), 46. See also (Vallisneri 2012), 277–278.

[92]

Mount Valestra (951 m/3,120 ft above sea level), in the territory of Carpineti (Province of Reggio Emilia).

[93]

Virgil (attributed). English translation: (Rose 1996), 258.

[94]

The epitaph on Balista is conventionally ascribed to Virgil, and is considered as one of his earliest works. According to Augusto Rostagni ((Rostagni 1961), 40–43), Balista was Virgil’s schoolmaster, who actually was not a robber; nor was he stoned to death for his deeds (as both the stanza and the legend claim). More probably, a young Virgil just made fun of him for his severity.

[95]

Mount Valestra is mainly composed of arenaceous rocks dating back to the Miocene epoch (23–5.3 Ma). It is the northern extremity of a ridge stretching from northeast to southwest in the Carpineti territory, and whose tectonic origin is also the cause of the many caves in the area. Vallisneri explored one of these grottos, the Buca del Diavolo (“Devil’s Pit”). This experience is not reported in the manuscript, but in (Vallisneri 1722b), 282–283. On this topic, see (Luzzini 2013a), 95–96; (2014a), 211.

[96]

This is a passage from Virgil’s Aeneid ((Vergilius n.d.), II, 120–121, http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0690.phi003.perseus-lat1:2.105-2.144).

[97]

From the Latin saying “Ne extra oleas” (“don’t [wander] from the olive trees”), which in turn derives from Aristophane’s comedy The Frogs ((Aristophanes/Ἀριστοφάνης n.d.), line 995: “ἐκτὸς οἴσει τῶν ἐλαῶν,” http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0019.tlg009.perseus-grc1:992-1003). See (Miller 1914).

[98]

“E diverticulo in viam,” a Latin saying of uncertain origin.

[99]

Quara, an ancient spa in the territory of Toano (Province of Reggio Emilia), whose mineral springs had been utilized since the Roman age. This water, rich in sodium (NaHCO3) and potassium (KHCO3) bicarbonates, was considered to be particularly effective for the treatment of skin diseases and digestive problems. In the XV century the springs were still widely utilized; however, when Vallisneri visited the spa it was abandoned and in ruins. See (Luzzini 2013a), 96; (2014a), 212; http://www.appenninoreggiano.it; http://www.comune.toano.re.it/turismo/storia.htm. The mineral springs of Quara are also described in (Vallisneri 1711), 353–354; (1728), 112–117.

[100]

(Wecker 1577), 14: “Apud Aquarium terra est a Regio Longobardo 25 miliaribus distans, balneum de Aquario nuncupatum: alumine participat. Viribus simile est balneo della Porretta. Idem.” In the previous edition of Wecker’s Antidotarium Speciale ((Wecker 1574)), Quara is not mentioned.

[101]

(Azzari 1623), voice Quara: “[…] quivi si trova il famoso bagno, tanto stimato da’ medici Romani; l’acque del quale di continuo mandano a pigliar, per servirsene in diverse infirmità; il qual bagno vien preconizato da Giacomo Vaccaro nel suo Antidotario; è ne’ monti.” Azzari mentions Wecker’s Antidotarium. Most likely, Vallisneri borrowed this reference from him.

[102]

(Falloppio 1606), Tractatus Septimus, De Thermalibus Aquis, Cap. XXV, De balneo Aquariano in agro Regiensi, 324–325.

[103]

See note 80.

[104]

(Falloppio 1606), Tractatus Septimus, De Thermalibus Aquis, Cap. XXV, De balneo Aquariano in agro Regiensi, 324: “Scire namque debetis, quod fluvius Draco appellatus, dividit Mutinensem agrum a Regiensi, in huius fluminis parte illa quae occidentem respicit solem, est hospitium quoddam non procul admodum ab Aquario pago.”

[105]

Torrente Dragone (“Dragone Creek”), in the Province of Modena. It merges into the Dolo a few kilometers north from Montefiorino.

[106]

Torrente Dolo (“Dolo Creek”), a tributary of the Secchia. It forms a natural boundary between the Provinces of Reggio Emilia (on the west) and Modena (on the eastern side).

[107]

Pieve di Rubbiano, an important Romanesque church in the northern Apennines. Now part of the municipality of Montefiorino (Province of Modena). Despite what the farmers told Vallisneri, the church was not built by Matilde di Canossa (see the following note), its origins dating back at least to the IX century. See (Bucciardi 1930); (Grazia and Grazia 1999); (Montorsi 1987), 130–144.

[108]

Matilde di Canossa, also known as Matilda of Tuscany (1046–1115). A powerful feudal lady, and one of the most powerful women in medieval Europe, she was a steady supporter of Pope Gregory VII (1020/1025–1085) during the Investiture Controversy: a conflict that opposed the Papacy and the Empire between the XI and XII centuries. At the height of her power, the “Grancontessa” (“Grand Countess”) ruled over a vast part of current Lombardy, Emilia-Romagna, and Tuscany. In 1111, she was crowned Vicar and Vice-Queen of Italy by the Holy Roman Emperor Henry V (1081–1125). On this topic, see (Fumagalli 1996); (Golinelli 1997); (1999).

[109]

Psylli, an ancient people who lived in Marmarica, a part of Northern Africa between eastern Lybia and Egypt. During the Roman age, they were renowned for being immune to snake venom and for their ability in the treatment of snake bites. See (Bates 1914), 179–180; (Ogden 2013), 6, 64, 209–214, 231–243, 296–297.

[110]

Vitriola, a hamlet in the municipality of Montefiorino. It is located in an area delimited by the mountain ridge on which Montefiorino rests (on the west) and by the Dragone Creek (on the east). Arenaceous and calcareous rocks—typically turbidites—dating back to the Campanian, Maastrichtian, and Danian ages (Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene, 83.5–61.6 Ma) dominate the lithology of this area. Most likely, the coloring properties of the springs described by Vallisneri result from high concentrations of iron oxides in the water. Cartographic source: (“Carta Geologica d’Italia, Foglio 235 (Pievelago)” 2002). The springs of Vitriola are also described in (Vallisneri 1711), 355; (1717b); (1728), 121–123. On this topic, see also (Rampoldi 1833), 81; (Ricci 1788), 257; (Zuccagni-Orlandini 1845), 45.

[111]

The reference is to the Greek myth of Trophonius’ Cave, in Boeotia, where an oracle resided (Μαντείο του Τροφωνίου). According to the legend, those wishing to consult the oracle had to drink from two springs, bearing the names of the rivers of Hades: Lethe (Λήθη, “Forgetfulness”) and Mnemosyne (Μνημοσύνη, “Memory”). On this topic, see (Edmonds 2004), 52, 107; (Ustinova 2009), 91–92; (Vandenberg 2007), 236–242.

[112]

Black mulberry, in Italian “gelso nero” (Morus nigra L.), Family Moraceae.

[113]

From (Tournefort (de) 1700), 591: “Salix Alpina, Alni rotundo folio.” Dwarf willow, in Italian “salice erbaceo” (Salix herbacea L.), Family Salicaceae. It is a tiny, woody, creeping plant, adapted to cold mountain, arctic and subarctic environments. Once rather common in the northern Apennines, it is now very rare and is regarded as a relict species as a consequence of the climate changes which have occurred in the past three centuries. On the identification of this species in the Italian mountains, see (Parlatore 1867), 277–279.

[114]

Medola, an ancient citadel (now part of Montefiorino) located in a crucial strategic point on the left shore of the Dragone Creek. Once a powerful stronghold (especially during the XII and XIII centuries), by the time of Vallisneri’s visit it was in ruins. See (Tiraboschi 1825), 39–40.

[115]

(Tassoni 1624), Canto III, 67.

[116]

Arguably, copper-rich rocks. Many cupric salts have a typical blue-greenish hue.

[117]

Church and fortified house of Medola, not to be confused with the homonymous fortress. It was located in the Modena Plain, and was destroyed in 1318. See (Tiraboschi 1825), 39.

[118]

Archaic Italian terms for “frana” (“landslide”). More specifically, the word “salatta” was used among the populations of the northern Apennines. See (De Stefani 1875), 6.

[119]

Alpe di San Pellegrino (“Alp of Saint Peregrine”), 1,701 m/5,581 ft above sea level. It overlooks the homonymous Pass, where is located San Pellegrino in Alpe (1,525 m/5,003 ft): the highest village in the Apennines. The pass links the Province of Modena (Emilia-Romagna) with Garfagnana (Province of Lucca, Tuscany). See (Luzzini 2013a), 94, 96–97, 102, Tabs. X–XII; (2014a), 209, 212–213.

[120]

The body of San Pellegrino delle Alpi (“Saint Peregrine of the Alps,” ?–643), still preserved in the local shrine together with the body of San Bianco (“Saint Blancus”), his only companion. According to the legend, Pellegrino was a pious Irish prince who travelled to the Holy Land. On his way back, he settled in a hermitage on the Apennines. On this topic, see (Angelini 1996).

[121]

By using this term, Vallisneri alludes—with evident, intentional irony—to the Jesuit scholar Athanasius Kircher (1602–1680) and to his theory of “hydrophylacia.” In Kircher, Neoplatonic and Hermetic beliefs coexisted with field research and experimental practice, leading to intriguing results. In his Mundus subterraneus ((Kircher 1664)), the whole Earth is studied as a living organism, in which each part is interconnected with the others. Like in the human body, different vital fluids flow through the planet. Natural phenomena are the result of the interaction between these circulatory systems, called “fire networks” (“pyrophylacia”), “air networks” (“aerophylacia”), and “water networks” (“hydrophylacia”). Kircher acknowledges evaporation as a means to replenish springs and rivers. But the “hydrophylacia” are the main causes of this process—they connect the sea to the mountains, allowing the water to rise. On this topic, see (Findlen 2004); (Fletcher 1968); (Parcell 2009).

[122]

This passage is from the Appendix Vergiliana ((Vergilius n.d.), 549, attributed, http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/appvergcomp.html). English translation: (Duff and Duff 1934).

[123]

Arguably, this is an adapted quote from Cicero’s Cato Maior de senectute ((Cicero n.d.), LXXIX): “Apud Xenophontem autem moriens Cyrus maior haec dicit: ‘Nolite arbitrari, O mihi carissimi filii, me, cum a vobis discessero, nusquam aut nullum fore. Nec enim, dum eram vobiscum, animum meum videbatis, sed eum esse in hoc corpore ex eis rebus quas gerebam intellegebatis. Eundem igitur esse creditote, etiamsi nullum videbitis’ ” (http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0474.phi051.perseus-lat1:79).

[124]

Panaro River (also known as Scoltenna), a main—and the last right-hand—tributary of the Po River.

[125]

Differently from Vallisneri, Ramazzini supported a compound origin of fresh water in which precipitation was complemented by both condensation of vapor into caverns and desalination of sea water by filtration through rock strata ((Ramazzini 1691), 56, 62). On this topic, see (Luzzini 2011b); (2013a), 73–74, 98–99, 109, 114, 140, 142, 146, 151, 198–199.

[126]

Fornovolasco, a village in the Apuan Alps (Tuscan Apennines), in the western end of Garfagnana. This place, now in the municipality of Fabbriche di Vergemoli, was once renowned for its iron mines. Still, in the XVIII century the mines were intensely exploited on behalf of the Dukes of Este, who used the iron for military purposes. See (Bonini and Biagioni 2007); (Luzzini 2010); (2011a), 107–108; (2013a), 100–102, 124, Tabs. XV–XVII; (2014a), 213–214; (Rocchi 2010).

[127]

This seems to be a reference to a biblical passage from the book of Ecclesiastes, Chapter 1, verse 7: “All the rivers run into the sea, yet the sea is not full; unto the place from which the rivers come, thither they return again.”

[128]

Here, the author refers to the influential Cartesian theory of “alembics,” according to which hidden channels existed connecting the oceans to the earth, allowing sea water to rise up the mountains by effect of subterranean heat, and to lose its salt by condensation of vapor inside secret caves. In Descartes’ opinion, these condensation phenomena gave a crucial contribution to the water cycle ((Descartes 1644), 228–231). Vallisneri firmly opposed the “alembics” theory, persuaded as he was that all fresh water came from rain or from the melting of glaciers in the mountains. See (Luzzini 2011b); (2013a), 97–98, 109–111, 116–131, 141–153; (2014a), 208, 213.

[129]

(Lanzoni 1688), Animadversio LXXXVI, De Aquae circulatione, 335–336.

[130]

This is a passage from the Sophist ((Plato/Πλάτων n.d.), III, 218, http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0059.tlg007.perseus-grc1:218c). The same quote is in (Vallisneri 2009), 15.

[131]

This is a passage from De rerum natura ((Lucretius n.d.), I, 1115–1117, http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0550.phi001.perseus-lat1:1.1083). English translation: (Lucretius 1916). In an interesting comment on these passages, Ken Taylor remarked how Vallisneri’s thought here “represents an attitude that is fundamental to the novel scientific viewpoint this author exemplifies. Like so many of his contemporaries, Vallisneri can hardly escape the impulse (Renaissance-humanistic in its basic character) toward rehearsal of the observations and opinions of respected authorities of the past. But he also declares that in the end, determination of what is true must depend not on authority but rather on facts and upon the capacity of a theoretical idea to account satisfactorily for those facts. A peculiar and interesting feature of Vallisneri’s writing is that, while holding to this modern criterion of conformability of a theory to observed facts, he maintains a somewhat traditional attachment to exposition that appeals constantly to one’s awareness of what both ancient and more recent authorities said” (my sincere thanks to Ken for this note).

[132]

Unfortunately, the letters Vallisneri refers to are missing. This event occurred in 1680, during the excavation of the Cannaregio, one of Venice’s main canals: suddenly, and unexpectedly, fresh water sprang from the ground. The same episode is mentioned in (Vallisneri 1715), 69: “Narrommi un dottissimo nobil uomo di Venezia, che nello scavare certe altissime fondamente nel loro Canal Regio trovarono una larga vena d’acqua dolce, la quale scorrente sotto le lagune salse colà sboccava, dove poteva farsi, con raro miracolo, una nobilissima fontana.” See also (Vacani di Forteolivo 1867), 168; (Zendrini 1811), 177.

[133]

(Porzio 1551), 3: “[…] mare passibus fere CC recessit, quo quidem loco et ingentem piscium multitudinem accolae capere, et aquae dulces prosilire visae fuerunt.” The passage is also quoted in (Vallisneri 1715), 69.

[134]

(Perrault 1674). Pierre Perrault (1611–1680), a French hydrologist, in his treatise invoked the existence of a perpetual motion of water, according to which rivers refilled both oceans and fountains. But he denied the Cartesian concept of subterranean heat as a means to explain the rise of water, as it had no acceptable causal explanation. Hence the need for another process, as the “horror vacui,” in obedience to which water could return—against gravity—from rivers to springs ((Perrault 1674), 148–150). See (Luzzini 2013a), 113–114; (Rappaport 1997), 187.

[135]

(Bartholin 1689). Caspar Bartholin (the Younger, 1655–1738), a Danish physician, refuted both rock filtration and distillation as natural means of producing fresh water. And just like Vallisneri, he pointed out that no springs existed on the very top of mountains. This phenomenon was simply impossible since—Bartholin asserted—it would have contradicted the laws of hydrostatics and equilibrium and, therefore, it would have been against nature itself ((Bartholin 1689), 34).

[136]

A latinization of the Ancient Greek word ἀντιπερίστασις, literally, “against what stands around.” In early modern medicine and natural philosophy, this term was used to describe the mutual resistance, and the resulting mutual reinforcement, of two opposite qualities (as, for instance, the increase of body temperature as a consequence of cold). On this topic, see (Hesse 1961), 55–58, 64, 67–68, 84–86, 101; (Pagel 1976), 74–76; (Varvoglis 2014), 14, 17, 19, 25.

[137]

Jacinth, a reddish variety of zircon (ZrSiO4). Arguably, the crystals described by Vallisneri were a dark brown or grey variety of this mineral.

[138]

Geodes: hollow, spheroidal rocks with crystals in the inside wall. They usually occur in igneous, quartz (SiO2) rich rocks. This is the case of the geodes from the Euganean Hills (“ab Euganeis”): low, volcanic hills located a few kilometers southwest of Padua. On this topic, see (Astolfi and Colombara 1990); (Bosellini 2005), 98.

The term “uteri crystallini,” used to describe geodes, comes from (Mercati 1717), 259–265. Vallisneri wrote profusely (and anonymously) about this treatise in the “Giornale de’ Letterati d’Italia.” More specifically, see (Vallisneri 1719), 173–174: “Se destramente rompiamo le lenti minori petrose descritte, e le maggiori dette numismi, troveremo, che quelle hanno per lo più nel centro certi minutissimi cristalletti, e per lo più nelle cavità degli angoli de’ loro strati, onde si veggono tutte generate nella maniera presso a poco degli uteri cristallini, coperti anch’essi di più strati di lapidosa materia, nella cavità de’ quali sono i cristalli appiattati, e alle pareti interne attaccati”).

[139]

(Imperato 1672), 572–574.

[140]

Vallisneri’s thought about mineral genesis and growth was not exempt from ambiguities and fluctuations. As the assertions in the manuscript suggest, he supposed and, somehow, admitted the existence in minerals of such biological features as seeds (or “matrices”) and nourishment. However, this theory (which was also a result of the strong influence that the Leibnizian doctrines of scala naturae and of the recognition of divine providence in creation exerted on him) was hardly compatible with empirical data and with his experimental beliefs. Moreover, one of his most important and influential scientific correspondents—the French philosopher, naturalist, and mathematician Louis Bourguet (1678–1742)—firmly opposed the idea that minerals would need a sort of nourishment. Not by chance, in the last part of his life Vallisneri did not seem to persist in supporting the view of a vegetative power in minerals. On this topic, see (Luzzini 2011a), 109–110; (2013a), 132–137.

[141]

Chrysocolla, a blue-green hydrous copper silicate ((Cu,Al)2H2Si2O5(OH)4· n(H2O)). However, this name may also refer to malachite, a green copper carbonate (Cu2CO3(OH)2). On this terminological confusion, see (Colombo 1995), 91; (Ward 2008), 506.

[142]

Uri Alps, in central Switzerland.

[143]

An unspecified mineral from the hexagonal crystal system. According to the green (“herbaceo”) color, it could be beryl (Be3Al2Si6O18), apatite (Ca5(PO4)3(F, Cl, OH)), or even another kind of mineral.

[144]

Brugg (a municipality in the Canton of Aargau, Switzerland).

[145]

Mount Pilatus (2,128 m/6,982 ft above sea level). It overlooks Lucerne, in central Switzerland.

[146]

The stone quarries of Öhningen, whose carbonate rocks date back to the Miocene epoch (23–5.3 Ma) and contain a large quantity of fossils. Here, in 1725, Scheuchzer found and described his famous Homo diluvii testis (“Man who witnessed the Deluge”): a fossil that he believed to be the remains of a man drowned in the biblical Deluge. Only in 1787 did the anatomist Petrus Camper (1722–1789) recognize the error, and in 1825 Georges Cuvier (1769–1832) identified in the Homo Diluvii testis the fossil remains of a giant salamander, which—in honor of Scheuchzer—was named Andrias scheuchzeri. On this topic, see (Jahn 1969); (Luzzini 2013a), 61–63; https://vimeo.com/46769954.

[147]

(Scheuchzer 1702), 29 (and not 24, as is written in the manuscript): “Fluor crystallinus trigonus, striis lateribus pyramidis cuiusque parallelis pulchre notatus. Fig. 41.” According to the image in Scheuchzer’s essay, this is probably a cluster of calcite crystals (CaCO3). Calcite crystallizes in the trigonal system.

[148]

Rhaetian Alps, a vast mountain range in the Central Eastern Alps.

[149]

Probably a yellow variety of quartz (SiO2), also known as citrine quartz.

[150]

Chalcedony, a micro-cryptocrystalline form of quartz. It can occur in many different colors.

[151]

Castelnuovo di Garfagnana (Province of Lucca).

[152]

The references in the margin note are incorrect. This is an adapted quote from (Dieterich 1661), 1412.

[153]

Francesco I d’Este (1610–1658), Duke of Modena and Reggio from 1629 until his death. In 1640, he appointed the poet Fulvio Testi (1593–1646) Governor of Garfagnana.

[154]

(Testi 1666), 213–216, Al Signor D. Ascanio Pio di Savoia (First edition: (Testi 1636)).

[155]

Ancient city of Luna, or Luni (Province of La Spezia), located in the historical territory of Lunigiana. It was close to the shore of the Tyrrhenian Sea and, therefore, was an important Roman harbour. On this topic, see (Sforza 1910).

[156]

Lilio Gregorio Giraldi (1479–1552), a scholar and poet from Ferrara. The reference is to (Giraldi 1548), 169–170.

[157]

This is a passage from Lucius Annaeus Florus (Epitome Rerum Romanarum, (Florus n.d.), II, 9–21, http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi1242.phi001.perseus-lat1:2.9.21.1).

[158]

This is a fake quote attributed to Cato the Elder’s Origines ((Cato maior n.d.)). Actually, the real author is the Dominican friar Annio da Viterbo (or Giovanni Nanni, 1437–1502). In this treatise ((Nanni 1498)), renamed in its many reprints as Antiquitatum variarum, Annio forged a great quantity of documents attributed to several ancient authors. Among them was Cato the Elder, with the supposed book De origine gentium et urbium Italicarum. Vallisneri, like other scholars of his time (and many other previous ones), was deceived by Annio’s work (this note refers to the 1515 edition: (Nanni 1515), Liber VII, LXVIIIr). On this topic, see (Baffioni and Mattiangeli 1981); (Fumagalli 1984); (Pacchi 1785), 11–14; (Stephens 2004).

[159]

This is another quote from Annio da Viterbo, falsely ascribed to the Roman consul Caius Sempronius Tuditanus and to the forged book De Divisione & Chorographia Italiae ((Nanni 1515), Liber IX, LXXVIIr, LXXXv). See also (Pacchi 1785), 11–14.

[160]

This is another quote from Annio da Viterbo, falsely ascribed to the Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius ((Nanni 1515), Liber VIII, Itinerarii Antonini fragmentum, LXXIVv). See also (Pacchi 1785), 11–14.

[161]

From Ptolemy’s Geography ((Ptolemaeus/Πτολεμαῖος n.d.), III, 1, http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Periods/Roman/_Texts/Ptolemy/3/1*.html).

[162]

From Pliny the Elder’s Naturalis Historia ((Plinius (Maior) n.d.), III, 26), http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0978.phi001.perseus-lat1:3.26.

[163]

(Plinius (Maior) n.d.), III, 25: “Tigulia intus, Segesta Tiguliorum, flumen Macra, Liguriae finis,” http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0978.phi001.perseus-lat1:3.25.

[164]

(Giraldi 1548), 169–170.

[165]

Anselmo Micotti (1630–1695), a historian from Camporgiano, who wrote a manuscript on the history of Garfagnana ((Micotti 1671)). See also the critical edition of this work, edited by Polimio Bacci ((Micotti 1980)).

According to the priest and historian Domenico Pacchi (1733–1825), both Giraldi and Micotti—and, consequently, Vallisneri—are wrong: the “Tigulia” mentioned by Pliny are not the Panie Mountains, but the ones surrounding Lavagna and Sestri Levante, in the current Province of Genoa (see (Pacchi 1785), 3, 19–21). Pacchi also disagrees on the etymology of Garfagnana from the deity Feronia (Roman goddess of forests, fertility, and health), considering it as a misconception caused by Annio da Viterbo.

[167]

Quintus Petilius Spurinus (III century BC–176 BC), Roman consul. He died fighting against the Ligures.

[168]

(Livius n.d.), XLI, 18, http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0914.phi00141.perseus-lat3:18. In his treatise, Pacchi strongly disagrees with Vallisneri on the identification of the “Mons Letum” mentioned by Titus Livius with the Alp of Saint Peregrine ((Pacchi 1785), 43–44). Actually, the exact identity of this mountain is still uncertain.

[169]

“Letum” means “violent death,” “ruin.”

[170]

From (Vergilius n.d.), VII, 799–800, http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0690.phi003.perseus-lat1:7.783-7.802. Arguably, Vallisneri refers to the quote in (Giraldi 1548), 170.

[171]

Pietrasanta (Province of Lucca).

[172]

Bientina (Province of Pisa).

[173]

Raffaele Maffei (1451–1522), a humanist and historian from Volterra. (Maffei 1506). This note refers to (Maffei 1530), 48v: “Deinde Feronia lucus Ptolemaeo, qui nunc Bientina cum lacu forte fuerit, nonnullis vero Petrasancta.”

[174]

Faliscans: an ancient Italic tribe who lived in central Italy from the VIII century BC to 241 BC, when their main city, Falerii, was destroyed by the neighboring Romans. On this topic, see (Waldman and Mason 2006), 247–249.

[175]

Mount Soratte (691 m/2,267 ft above sea level), in the Province of Rome.

[176]

(Στράβων n.d.), V, 2, http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0099.tlg001.perseus-grc1:5.2. The same quote (in Latin) is in (Giraldi 1548), 170.

[177]

Virgil.

[178]

(Halicarnassensis n.d.), II, 49: “Delatos autem ad campos Italiae, qui Pomentini vocantur, et agrum, quo primum appulerant, Feroniam vocasse, ab ipsa maris navigatione, in qua ipsis contigerat ut huc illuc ferrentur; et deae Feroniae templum erexisse, cui vota nuncuparant: quam iam, unius literae immutatione, Faroniam vocant” (original Greek version: http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0081.tlg001.perseus-grc1:2.49.5).

[179]

Niccolò Perotti (1429/30–1480), Italian humanist, philologist, and Archbishop of Siponto (hence the Latin name “Sipontinus”). The reference is to (Perotti 1489). Page references are to the 1502 edition ((Perotti 1502), 37): “Vir. et viridi gaudens Feronia luco. […] et Iunonem quae Feronia vocabatur. Fontem aut fuisse in Campania iuxta Tarracinam: quae aliquando est Anxur dicta. Sed illud magis constat sub monte Soracte urbem fuisse Feroniam, et in ipso monte eiusdem nominis dea: quam finitimi mira religione venerabantur.”

[180]

(Honoratus n.d.), VII, 799–801, http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.02.0053: “ ‘Circaeumque iugum.’ Circa hunc tractum Campaniae colebatur puer Iuppiter, qui Anxyrus dicebatur, quasi ἄνευ ξυροῦ, id est sine novacula, quia barbam numquam rasisset, et Iuno virgo, quae Feronia dicebatur. Est autem fons in Campania iuxta Terracinam, quae aliquando Anxur est dicta. ‘Et viridi gaudens Feronia luco.’ Non vacat quod addidit ‘viridi’: nam cum aliquando huius fontis lucus fortuito arsisset incendio et vellent incolae exinde transferre simulacra deorum, subito reviruit. ‘Qua saturae iacet atra palus.’ Secundum hanc lectionem re vera Saturam paludem intellegimus; sed alii ‘Asturae’ legunt. Quod si est, paludem pro flumine posuit; nam haud longe a Terracina oppidum est Astura et cognominis fluvius.”

[181]

Terracina (Province of Latina).

[182]

(Silius Italicus n.d.), XIII, 82–85, http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi1345.phi001.perseus-lat1:13. Here and below, the English translation follows (Silius Italicus 1934b); (1934a).

[183]

Fabrizio Zumali, a lawyer from Lodi who lived in the XVI century. He defended the Republic of Lucca against the Duchy of Ferrara, Modena and Reggio in a legal dispute over the possession of Garfagnana. On this topic, see (Molossi 1776), 187; (Pacchi 1785), 3, 22. The quoted passage is arguably from a part (Informatio XI) of an unknown, larger text.

[184]

Pania della Croce (1,858 m/6,096 ft above sea level). It is the highest peak in the mountain range known as Gruppo delle Panie (“Panie Group”), in the Apuan Alps.

[185]

Penia (Πενία), Greek mythological goddess of poverty and need.

[186]

Barga (Province of Lucca).

[187]

Mount Tondo, once known as Mount Tea (1,782 m/5,846 ft above sea level). It divides the drainage system of the Serchio (in Garfagnana) from that of the Magra River, in Lunigiana.

[188]

Serchio, the main river in the Province of Lucca (and, therefore, the main river in Garfagnana). It flows into the Tyrrhenian Sea, a few kilometers north from Pisa.

[189]

(Ptolemaeus/Πτολεμαῖος n.d.), III, http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Periods/Roman/_Texts/Ptolemy/3/1*.html. Arguably, the map number and the related name refer to one of the many Latin editions of Ptolemy’s treatise. I refer here to (Ptolemaeus/Πτολεμαῖος 1584), Europae Tabula VI.

[190]

(Plinius (Maior) n.d.), III, 8, http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0978.phi001.perseus-eng1:3.8: “[…] Pisae inter amnes Auserem et Arnum.”

[192]

Sillano, the main hamlet of the municipality of Sillano Giuncognano (Province of Lucca).

[193]

This name could refer either to Rocca Soraggio or Villa Soraggio, both hamlets in the municipality of Sillano Giuncognano.

[194]

Turrite Secca, a western tributary of the Serchio. The two streams merge in Castelnuovo di Garfagnana.

[195]

Arno, the main river of Tuscany. It flows into the Tyrrhenian Sea, after passing through Pisa.

[196]

(Rutilius Namatianus n.d.), I, 565–566, https://www.hs-augsburg.de/~harsch/Chronologia/Lspost05/Namatianus/nam_red1.html. English translation: (Duff and Duff 1934).

[198]

Saint Fridianus (Frediano di Lucca, circa 500–588), an Irish prince who travelled to Italy and became Bishop of Lucca. According to a legend, he miraculously diverted the course of the Serchio (which often flooded the nearby city) by using a simple rake. On this topic, see (Fanucchi 1870); (Puccinelli 1952).

[199]

(Maffei 1530), 48v.

[200]

(Vannini 1611), Liber Quartus, Epigramma XXIII, De D. Fridiano, Episcopo Lucensi, rastro Aesarem flumen vertente, 118 (the epigram numbers quoted in the manuscript are incorrect).

[203]

This quote is not clear. Here, Vallisneri may refer to a passage from the Saturnalia ((Macrobius n.d.), II, 4, http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/L/Roman/Texts/Macrobius/Saturnalia/2*.html), where Octavian Augustus ironically addresses his friend Gaius Maecenas as “Laser Aretinum.” For a detailed comment on the relationship between the word “lasar/laser” and the name “Aesar,” see (???), 236–237 and notes.

[204]

(Nanni 1515), Liber VII, De origine gentium et urbium Italicarum, LXXv: “Aesar fluvius dictus: quia lingua Hetrusca Aesar dicitur deus, ut Sueton. dicit in Vita Octaviani.”

[206]

(Schott and Giovannini 1600), 146.

[207]

Vallisneri is referring to the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714), a great conflict that scourged Europe after the death of the last Habsburg King of Spain, Carlos II (1661–1700).

[208]

Camporgiano (Province of Lucca).

[209]

Trassilico. Once an autonomous municipality, now a hamlet in the municipality of Gallicano (Province of Lucca).

[210]

Mont’Alfonso Fortress, now part of the municipality of Castelnuovo di Garfagnana.

[211]

Alfonso II d’Este (1533–1597), fifth Duke of Ferrara, Modena and Reggio. On this topic, see (Tiraboschi 1825), 131.

[212]

Cornelio Bentivoglio, Marquess of Gualtieri (1519/20–1585). On this topic, see (Tiraboschi 1825), 440.

[213]

Verrucole Fortress, now part of the municipality of San Romano in Garfagnana (Province of Lucca).

[214]

Here, Vallisneri refers to a passage from Gellius’ Noctes Atticae ((Gellius n.d.), III, 7 (6–8), http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/l/roman/texts/Gellius/3*.html): “ ‘Censeo,’ inquit ‘si rem servare vis, faciundum, ut quadringentos aliquos milites ad verrucam illam’—sic enim Cato locum editum asperumque appellat—‘ire iubeas, eamque uti occupent, imperes horterisque; hostes profecto ubi id viderint, fortissimus quisque et promptissimus ad occursandum pugnandumque in eos praevertentur unoque illo negotio sese alligabunt, atque illi omnes quadringenti procul dubio obtruncabuntur. Tunc interea occupatis in ea caede hostibus tempus exercitus ex hoc loco educendi habebis. Alia nisi haec salutis via nulla est’ .”

[215]

Alfonso I d’Este (1476–1534), third Duke of Ferrara, Modena and Reggio. On this topic, see (Tiraboschi 1825), 130.

[216]

Now the Roman Catholic Diocese of La Spezia-Sarzana-Brugnato.

[217]

Now the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lucca.

[218]

Rivo del Poggio e di Cavezza (Poggio and Cavezza Creeks), now both known as Cavezza di Verrucole: a small tributary of the Serchio. The two streams merge in Piazza al Serchio (Province of Lucca).

[219]

San Romano in Garfagnana (Province of Lucca).

[220]

Sillicagnana, a hamlet in the municipality of San Romano in Garfagnana.

[221]

The sculpture is an allegory of the Este’s victory over the Republic of Florence (whose symbol was a lion, known as “Marzocco”) in 1521, when Alfonso I d’Este regained Garfagnana after the death of Pope Leo X (Giovanni di Lorenzo de’ Medici, 1475–1521). Therefore, the lion could refer both to the emblem of Florence and to the Pope’s name. On this topic, see (Pacchi 1785), 82.

[222]

(Ariosto 1535).

[223]

The panther was the symbol of the Republic of Lucca, which previously occupied Garfagnana.

[224]

(Ariosto 1535).

[225]

This passage is from the Bucolica ((Vergilius n.d.), IV, 6, attributed, http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0690.phi001.perseus-lat1:4).

[226]

See note 97.

[227]

Timoteo Tramonti (circa XVI–XVII century), an antiquarian from Castiglione di Garfagnana (Province of Lucca). He wrote a manuscript on the history of Garfagnana ((Tramonti, n.d.)). See (Pacchi 1785), 179.

[228]

See note 165.

[229]

Giovanni Bosio (?–?). Arguably, another antiquarian from Garfagnana.

[230]

Bartolomeo Morganti (circa XVI–XVII century), an antiquarian from Garfagnana.

[231]

(Torre (del) 1700), 9. Filippo del Torre (1657–1717), Bishop of Adria, was a learned historian, archaeologist, and a friend of Vallisneri. On this topic, see (Vallisneri 1991), 463.

[232]

The “Prior Guazzelli” could be identified as Michelangelo Guazzelli (1660-173?), a nobleman from Castiglione. He was appointed Podestà (“chief magistrate”) of Sassuolo (Province of Modena) from 1720 to 1724, and later became Podestà of San Felice sul Panaro (Province of Modena), from 1724 to—at least—1731. See (Cionini 1880), 214.

[233]

On the great mineralogical diversity that can be found in Garfagnana (including such mineral species as—among many others—pyrite, marcasite, copper, and silver), see (Biagioni 2009); (Bonini and Biagioni 2007); (Luzzini 2013a), 100, note 108.

[234]

Arguably, mineral sulphur (S). When burnt, it produces sulphur dioxide (SO2), a toxic gas (hence, probably, the expression “exhalat”).

[235]

Considering the location where this phenomenon was observed, Vallisneri’s assumptions seem plausible. It could have been either an ignis fatuus (or “will-o’-wisp,” in Italian “fuoco fatuo”: weak flames produced by the decomposition and natural combustion of organic matter) or the bioluminescence of fireflies.

[236]

Bagno della Pieve, a spa still used in the municipality of Pieve Fosciana (Province of Lucca). It is also described in (Vallisneri 1711), 355–356; (1728), 105–107.

[237]

Jacopo Lavelli (XVI–XVII century), a physician from Castelnuovo and Professor of Medicine at the University of Pisa. In 1609, he wrote a letter in Latin on these thermal springs. A partial transcription of this letter is reported in (Paolucci 1720), 78. An Italian translation of the entire letter was then published in (Vandelli 1760), 77–93, 102–103. Finally, a complete transcription of the original Latin text can be found in (Pacchi 1785). On this topic, see (De Stefani 1879); (Pacchi 1785), 197, 200–201. For a detailed chemical study of the thermal springs of the Serchio River valley, see (Calvi et al. 1999).

[238]

Terme Tettuccio, one of the most ancient and renowned spas in Montecatini Terme (Province of Pistoia). Here, Vallisneri refers to a passage from Lavelli’s letter ((Pacchi 1785), LXXIX): “[…] eo modo, et ordine sumitur, quo aqua Tettucciorum sumi consuevit.”

[239]

Reggio (Regium Lepidi), the ancient name of the city of Reggio Emilia.

[240]

From Galen’s De simplicium medicamentorum temperamentis ac facultatibus ((Galenus/Γαληνός n.d.), IX, De lapidibus, https://books.google.it/books?id=pswQcfcp4VkCprintsec=frontcover#v=onepageqf=false): “Est et alius lapis colore atro, qui ubi igni admotus fuerit, persimilem bitumini odorem exhibet, quem Dioscorides nonnullique alii in Lycia inveniri prodiderunt, ad fluvium nomine Gagatem, unde et ipsi lapidi nomenclaturam inditam dicunt […].” Here, too, Vallisneri refers to a passage from Lavelli’s letter ((Pacchi 1785), LXXVII): “Galenus enim, et Mesues, praecipui praeceptores nostri, asserunt oleum, quod de bitumine petrae gagatis extrahitur, talia beneficia afferre consuevisse; vim enim emolliendi, aperiendi, et discutiendi ei tribuit Galenus.”

“Lapis Gagates”—“jet” in English, “gaietto” in Italian—is a type of lignite once used in jewelry (because of its relative hardness and translucence) and in medicine. On the chemical composition of the thermal waters in Pieve Fosciana, see (Calvi et al. 1999), 50–52.

[241]

Though the location of this second, unexploited thermal spring is not clear, Vallisneri is evidently referring to a passage from the last part of Lavelli’s letter ((Pacchi 1785), LXXIX: “Mille passus procul a dictis thermis, sed in opposita parte alterius montis, quaedam aquae thermales nuper inventae sunt, quae ad hepar refrigerandum summopere conducunt, et inter alias (quia tres sunt numero) una ipsarum reperitur lactis saporem referens, quod monstruosum dici potest; cum in terrae cavernis id gignatur, quod in pectore solummodo animalium naturae decreto gigni consuevit. Et haec insignem hepati affert refrigerationem; sed ob fluminis viciniam, et supereminentis montis oppressionem difficillime defendi possunt, quin aquae misceantur; et nondum intelligere potui, quid sit de ipsarum commodo usu sperandum.” Pacchi ((1785), 197) agrees with Vallisneri. But according to others ((Calvi et al. 1999), 46–48; (De Stefani 1904), 119–120; (Paolucci 1720), 78; (Vandelli 1760), 101–103), Lavelli’s note refers to the Torrite thermal waters: these are located on the opposite side of the Serchio, and are described by Vallisneri later in the manuscript.

[242]

Carlo Davini (16?–17?), uncle of Vallisneri. See (Vallisneri 1991), 124.

[243]

Giambattista Terni (16?–17?). Arguably, an uncle of Vallisneri.

[244]

Giulio Rossi (16?–17?), from Scandiano, Capitano di Ragione (i.e., governor and chief magistrate) of Camporgiano. See (Cionini 1880), 89, note 1.

[245]

Torrite thermal waters, an ancient spa in the municipality of Castelnuovo di Garfagnana. The spring was located on the Apuan (western) side of the Serchio River, along the Turrite Secca Torrent. It disappeared in 1948, as a consequence of the construction of a nearby hydroelectric power plant ((Calvi et al. 1999), 46–50). The Torrite thermal waters are also described in (Vallisneri 1711), 356–357; (1728), 108–111. On this topic, see also (De Stefani 1904); (Pacchi 1785), 197–200; (Paolucci 1720), 78; (Vandelli 1760), 95–104.

[246]

For a comment on the use of this term in the manuscript, see note 121.

[247]

Despite what could be argued, the hydrothermal activity of the Euganean Hills is not a consequence of their volcanic origin. Rather, the thermal and chemical features of these springs result from the penetration of water 3 kilometers (1.85 miles) deep into the Earth’s crust through fractures in rocks. At this depth, the water meets a crystalline basement and is forced upwards by hydraulic pressure, eventually flowing at high temperature (up to 75°C) and enriched with mineral salts, including such elements as Cl, Na, K, Mg, Br, I, Si. On this topic, see (Astolfi and Colombara 1990); (Bosellini 2005), 98; (Luzzini 2013a), 84; http://www.parcocollieuganei.it.

[248]

This is a passage from Cassiodorus’ Variae ((Cassiodorus Senator n.d.), II, 39, http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/cassiodorus/varia2.shtml). The same quote is in (Vallisneri 2006), 291 and note 713.

[249]

As is pointed out in the Italian synthesis of the Primi itineris Specimen ((Vallisneri 1726), 382), Vallisneri is specifically referring to the Terme d’Abano: the most renowned spa in the Euganean Hills (now in the municipality of Abano Terme, Province of Padua). On this topic, see (Luzzini 2013a), 84–87, 186; (Vallisneri 1706).

[250]

From Proteus (Πρωτεύς), a Greek mythological god of waters, who—just like water—constantly changed shape. Hence the Latin adjective “protheiformis” (“protean” in English, “proteiforme” in Italian), which means “versatile,” “mutable.”

[251]

Fonte della Vergine di Monteortone (“Spring of the Holy Virgin of Monteortone”), in Abano Terme. According to a legend, in 1428 the soldier Pietro Falco bathed in it, and was miraculously healed from plague. Later in the XV century, a shrine was built on this site (Santuario della Madonna della Salute, “Shrine of the Madonna of Health”), becoming a popular destination of pilgrimage. See (Luzzini 2013a), 86–87; (Vallisneri 2006), 246 and note 636; http://www.abanoterme.net/abano-citta.html; http://www.monteortone.it/3sto/app.htm.

[252]

Here, Vallisneri is supposedly referring to the vascular network of the skin.

[253]

Areola: a circular, pigmented area in the skin. Usually, this term refers to the colored area which surrounds the nipple.

[254]

This is an adapted quote from (Cassiodorus Senator n.d.), II, 39, http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/cassiodorus/varia2.shtml: “Haec perennitas aquarum intellegendi praestat indicium per igneas terrae venas occultis meatibus influentem imitus in auras erumpere excocti fontis inriguam puritatem”; “Spatium, quod inter aedem publicam et caput igniti fontis interiacet, silvestri asperitate depurga.”

The location of this other, unexploited thermal spring is not clear, though Vallisneri (see also (Vallisneri 1726), 383) places it on the eastern side of the Turrite Secca Torrent. In any case, according to Domenico Pacchi ((Pacchi 1785), 200), by the second half of the XVIII century this spring no longer existed.

[255]

Variation of Aponus, a deity of the ancient Adriatic Veneti, later identified with the Greek god Apollo (Ἀπόλλων) and, as such, dispenser of health. Hence the modern name “Fonte d’Abano” (“fons Aponi”). On this topic, see (Lazzaro 1981).

[256]

(Claudianus n.d.), 69–70, http://www.curculio.org/Claudian/aponus.html. The same quote is in (Vallisneri 2006), 291 and note 714.

[258]

This is an adapted quote from Saint Jerome’s Epistolae ((Hieronymus n.d.), CXXX, 7, http://ctsstage.dh.uni-leipzig.de/text/urn:cts:latinLit:stoa0162.stoa004.opp-lat3/passage/130.7.11-130.7.14): “Polire faciem purpurisso, et cerussa ora depingere; ornare crinem, et alienis capillis turritum verticem struere.”

[259]

Italian arum, in Italian “gigaro chiaro” (Arum italicum Miller), Family Araceae. It is a herbaceous, perennial plant native to the Mediterranean region, growing 30 to 46 cm in height (12–18 in). Its tuberous rhizome is particularly rich in starch, which in Trassilico was once used as a substitute for the common wheat starch. On this topic, see (Gastaldo 1987), 469–470; http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?kempercode=y760.

[260]

(Ariosto 1548), 9r. English translation: (Ariosto 1996).

[261]

In the second half of the XV century, the Duke Ercole I d’Este (1431–1505) promoted the exploitation of the iron deposits in Fornovolasco. To this purpose, he availed himself of expert miners from the Lombard city of Brescia. See (Luzzini 2013a), 100n.

[262]

Turrite di Gallicano, also known as the Petrosciana Torrent: a western tributary of the Serchio. The two streams merge in Gallicano.

[263]

The area of the iron mines in Fornovolasco has an extremely complex geological history. In particular, the mines are hosted in a Paleozoic outcrop whose quartz-muscovite phyllites (SiO2; KAl2(Si3Al)O10(OH, F)2) date back to the late Cambrian and Ordovician periods (540–440 Ma), while the origin of the rich pyrite veins in this zone is related to evaporitic processes typical of coastal lagoons. Cartographic source: (“Carta Geologica Del Parco Delle Alpi Apuane, Tavola 1,” n.d.). On this topic, see (Biagioni 2009); (Bonini and Biagioni 2007); (Luzzini 2013a), 100, note 108; http://www.vallisneri.it/osservazioni-ferro.shtml.

[264]

Domenico de’ Corradi d’Austria (1677–1756), chief superintendent of artillery on behalf of the Duke and a very expert miner. His practical knowledge played a key role in the success of Vallisneri’s investigations in Garfagnana, as Corradi provided him with advice, direct assistance, helpers and equipment for his explorations. See (Luzzini 2008), 351, 355; (2010), 97, 102, 104, 107; (2011a), 107–108; (2013a), 100–101, 124–129; (2014a), 214. On the fruitful editorial collaboration between Vallisneri and Corradi, see (Luzzini 2012), 51; (2013a), 101; (2017), 134, 136.

[265]

God.

[266]

The University of Padua.

[267]

(Fabra (dalla) 1700). In this treatise, Luigi dalla Fabra, who already studied the therapeutic properties of the renowned white, aluminium- and silica-rich clay of Nocera Umbra (now in the Province of Perugia), focused on a strange “tartareous substance” found in a fountain of that city. Once put in boiling water, he noticed the formation of “silvery, shining bubbles,” and the following precipitation of an “extremely white and solid matter” (arguably, silica and/or aluminium salts) on the bottom of the bronze vases where the experiments were performed (“aheneorum lateribus, et fundo sensim adhaerens concressit, ut in materiam albam, densam, nonnihil ponderosam, nec de facili friabilem, asperioremque, et crystallinam, gustui aliquantulum subacidiusculam, dentes nonnihil exasperantem, et in aqua indissolubilem, indurescat”). On this topic, see (Vallisneri 1717a).

[268]

Unfortunately, the letters Vallisneri refers to are missing.

[269]

Arguably, potassium nitrate (KNO3).

[270]

This adapted, recapitulatory quote refers to (Boyle 1676), Latin edition of (Boyle 1674). Boyle’s corpuscularianism strongly influenced Vallisneri’s early thought about mineral genesis and growth. On Boyle’s theory, see (Anstey 2002); (Clericuzio 1990); (Hirai and Yoshimoto 2005); (Luzzini 2011a), 109–110; (2013a), 134–135; (Pighetti 1988); (Yoshimoto 1992). For a study on Boyle’s alchemical interests, see (Principe 1998). On the early modern debate about the existence of biological features in minerals and rocks, see (Hirai 2005); (Norris 2009); (Oldroyd 1974).

[271]

See note 19.

[272]

Tana che urla (“Screaming Cave”) of Fornovolasco, one of the most interesting and renowned karst caves in Garfagnana. An experimental replication of Vallisneri’s exploration was performed in 2006. On this topic, see (Luzzini 2008); (2010), 104–114; (2013a), 100–101, 124–129; (2014a), 214; http://www.vallisneri.it/osservazioni-tana.shtml.

[273]

The deposition of calcite (CaCO3), the dominant mineral in karst environments, is controlled by the reversible chemical reaction 2HCO3- + Ca2+ <=> CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O. Consequently, the dissolution or precipitation of calcium carbonate is strictly influenced by changes in the chemical equilibrium of this reaction, which depends on the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the water (the lesser the amount of CO2, the more CaCO3 is deposited). In turn, the solubility of CO2 in fresh water increases with increasing pressure and decreasing temperature. On the karst caves in Fornovolasco, see (Bonini and Piantini 2001); (Speleoclub 1999).

[274]

On the wide array of speleological formations that can be observed in the Tana che urla, see (Luzzini 2008); (2010), 104–114; (2013a), 124–129, Tabs. XIX–XXI; http://www.vallisneri.it/osservazioni-tana.shtml.

[275]

(Agricola (Bauer) 1546). The terms “venae,” “venulae,” “canales,” and “canaliculi” can be ubiquitously found in Agricola’s treatise. However, it is worth mentioning here a significant passage from the third book of the De natura eorum quae effluunt ex terra ((Agricola (Bauer) 1546), 127), that clearly shows Agricola’s opinion about the origin of fresh water: “[…] canales aquarum, quae fluunt aut propria earum vis effecit. Etenim fontanarum vis excavavit venas, suas charadras torrentium, rivorum et fluminum suos alveos: perpaucis exceptis, quos homines foderunt. Aut hominum manus eos canales effecit: sicuti fistulas, tubos, fossas aquae ductuum. Igitur aquae quae fluunt, omnes sunt aut fontanae, aut pluviae, aut nivales.”

[276]

Drinking sea water (or not adequately desalinated water) causes many dangerous and potentially lethal effects, including dehydration, the ingestion of harmful bacteria, and kidney damage. This may lead to urinating blood (hematuria), as Vallisneri probably observed in one or more of his patients.

[277]

Eventually, Vallisneri realized his purpose ten years later, in 1715, with the publication of the Lezione Accademica intorno all’Origine delle Fontane. Not by chance, in this treatise many disputations and reports (as, for example, the field research in the Apennines and the exploration of the iron mines and of the Tana che urla in Garfagnana) recall and develop the content of the Primi itineris Specimen. On this topic, see (Luzzini 2008); (2010), 104–114; (2011a); (2013a), 90–160, Tabs. VII–XXVIII; (2014a).

[281]

Actually, the quoted passages are not from Plato’s Euthydemus ((Plato/Πλάτων n.d.), http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0059.tlg021.perseus-grc1:271a), but from Hippias minor ((Plato/Πλάτων n.d.), 372, http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0059.tlg026.perseus-grc1:372e).

[282]

Ianus (or Janus) was one of the oldest and most important deities in ancient Rome and among the early Italic peoples. It was the god of beginning and transitions. Because of this symbolism, his effigy (typically consisting of two faces, looking both to the future and the past) frequently appeared on gates and passages. The doors of the main Temple of Ianus in Rome were kept open in time of war, and closed in time of peace. With this image, Vallisneri is referring to the War of the Spanish Succession, which in 1705 was raging in Italy and Europe. On the cult of Ianus, see (Burchett 1918); (Gasperoni Panella and Cittadini Fulvi 2008).

[283]

Jasper (SiO2): a microcrystalline, opaque variety of chalcedony. It can occur in different colors, depending on the impurities in it. Red jasper, whose color is due to iron inclusions, can be commonly found in the Apuan Alps. On this topic, see (De Stefani 1889), 330–333.

[284]

In the next two decades, Vallisneri refined and enriched this list, in his effort to define the ideal goals and procedures of a philosophical field research. In the Continuazione dell’Estratto of 1726, the “Indice di osservazioni” (“Index of observations”) listed up to 26 points ((Vallisneri 1726), 404–417). On this topic, see (Luzzini 2013a), 104–106; (2014a), 215–217.

[286]

(Petrarca 1581). On the identification of this source, see (Vallisneri 1726), 421.

[a]

Iter <>num montanum

[b]

Montes mutinenses Specimen

[c]

Archyliceo Practicae Medicinae in primo loco Publico

[d]

L.V. Scandianensi

[e]

proijcere

[f]

Sprezzerete probabilmente forse

[g]

o riveritissimo amico Accademici

[h]

cammini, e che da quelli chieggia dirò così risposte e notizie per conoscere imparare

cammini, e che da quelli chieggia dirà risposte

cammini, e chiedendo colà risposte

[i]

leggi, fra quegli taciti

[j]

parendo, che

[k]

deserti ed che paiono dalla

[l]

dove bollono cotanto si

[m]

scogli, e dirupi immensi, sassi acque

[n]

e sassi immensi terribili

[o]

caverne, ne’ quali urtano, e si dirompono con istrepito per non dire con isdegno le acque cadenti, che se

[p]

sentirvi ridire parlare

[q]

scoperta, e confermata confermata, quando sarà e addimesticata

[r]

nobile congresso adunanza

[s]

più speldente splendida

[t]

illustrare le loro patrie, e ci rimproverano, e murmurano ci

illustrare la natura. Filosofica storia e ci

[u]

e infruttuoso infindo)

[v]

su ne’ monti quelli

[w]

pareva

[x]

non fosse sia

[y]

diletto, come ora descendere

[z]

lora

[aa]

un <> filosofo

[ab]

me

[ac]

natura solamente contrasta

[ad]

Margin note (left): S’aspetti d’essere a Scandiano etc.

[ae]

la g<rande> minera dello zolfo nobile

[af]

Scandiano verso il monte, posta

[ag]

Gesso, sopra cui si veggono ancora le fondamenta d’un’antichissima ca fortezza, che dietro

[ah]

piccolo torrente rivo

[ai]

acque piovane di quel monte nelle

[aj]

fu quello, che

[ak]

ora la superficie, da

[al]

Margin note (right): Zolfat<ara>, fumo di zolfo

[am]

dove onde nasceva

[an]

quale balordagine scempiaggine

[ao]

una cieca subita

[ap]

il torrente rivo

[aq]

a certa povera

[ar]

gente per accatto venderlo di

[as]

dil dcercare

[at]

ritrovata della quale era così

[au]

che basta per da

[av]

città. Appena s’entra dentro la cava, che Due

[aw]

insieme nel fine per

[ax]

dell’aria, che vanno in capaci

[ay]

etc.

Aloiysio de la Fabra Pub.co Lycei Ferrariensis Professori. Reptantem

[az]

mussito. Alpinas Montanas

[ba]

primo

Fervente Augusto.

Carpebam iter, adulto iam anno, montes versus, non solum relaxandi animi gratia, sed ut vix tactas a nostris opes medicas, et naturales antrum

primoFervente Augusto.Carpebam iter, adulto iam anno, montes versus, non solum relaxandi animi gratia, sed ut medicas, et naturales opes vix a nostratibus tactas salutatas, quibus iuga nostra ditantur, rimarer. Sic Gesneri amici Scheuchzeri, aliorumque transalpinorum vestigiis inhaerenti inherenti mihi modo volupe fuit per ima reptare, modo excelsa calcans cacumina caput inter nubes attollere. Si enim ullibi Natura dives est, inibi est, ubi pretium facit horror, et cruda locorum asperitas, caelique inclementia socordes arcet. Tum mihi aliquando maior videbar me ipso, et supra graves curas, pompamque gentemque togatam caput elevans, cogitationibus vacuus, negotiis liber, totus natura plenus cum natura solum tacita rixabar. Occurrebat primo visendum antrum

[bb]

versus laxatur patet

[bc]

graveolens, fumosum, asperum. Pauci sub hinc annis Principis generositate rursus detectum, licet antiquorum incuria saxis ingentibus obrutum, et sola incolarum traditione vix notum. Excellens

[bd]

est, Romana pinguius, et coloratius, et ac

est, Romana pinguior, et coloratior, et ac

[be]

Spallanzanus amicissimus meus, qui

[bf]

etiam alpini montani

[bg]

fornicem supergressus ingressus

[bh]

observabam cognatas multi

[bi]

variis stiriis striis, vel ac

[bj]

instar, cretae argillae

[bk]

Margin note (left): Vide Fig. prima

[bl]

fossores vulgo cretone

[bm]

Tam stireae striae

[bn]

ac sinisdextrorsum

[bo]

illa sedet infixum

[bp]

germinet, namque vix

[bq]

adhaerens viderunt invenitur

[br]

Aqua filatim tenui

[bs]

alto serpens depluens

[bt]

ita rotundatos levigatos

ita rotundos levigatos

[bu]

quodam amictu velo

[bv]

sulphureae minerae truncus

[bw]

dispersi, ac veluti cum

[bx]

pomm<ae>

[by]

longitudo usque ad

[bz]

gypseis, saxeis tartareis

[ca]

In the text: Difert

[cb]

vero fere transversaliter oblique

[cc]

versus inclinata sita

[cd]

minorisque

[ce]

impensis extrahitur eruitur

[cf]

Nec tam immensae adeo

[cg]

impurius immixtumque saxo quodam tophaceo quod

[ch]

In the text: subviridique

[ci]

dilutaque

[cj]

expertum macrius pallidiusculum, macriusque appellatusque caballinum est

[ck]

From this point on, text at p. 5 continues on an additional, unnumbered paper (IX). This is written only on the recto.

[cl]

vero commune ad

[cm]

citrinum magis flavo

[cn]

per analysim enchirisim

[co]

in sudato egregio

[cp]

copiosis

[cq]

From this point on, text continues on p. 5.

[cr]

aerem ista cavea

[cs]

combibit

[ct]

bibit. In solstitio aestivo ab operibus otiari necesse est, eo quod adeo densi vaporum glomi erumpant, Solstitio

[cu]

From this point on, text continues on the recto of a second additional paper (X.r).

[cv]

On the verso (X.v) is a cancelled writing: Sulphur elevat scoriam ab omnibus de<tra> metallis, excepto auro, praecipue virginale, hinc si placet etc.

Nigrum tingit nummos argenteos etiam in <>a reconditos etc.

[cw]

From this point on, text continues on p. 5.

[cx]

benefitia

[cy]

fummo

[cz]

sani evadebant

[da]

scoriis, incastigatisque crudisque

[db]

hiantes spiracula volvulos

[dc]

From this point on, text at p. 6 continues on p. XI.r, first of two additional, unnumbered papers (XI–XII).

[dd]

sulphuri fusum fundendo

[de]

In the text: preit

[df]

stillitans

[dg]

abit. Nec solum scabiem, sed ulcera antiquo etiam scatentia tabo delet. Hunc

[dh]

revalescunt, a fortiori eo

[di]

minera impraegnatis imbutis

[dj]

res ex contraria

[dk]

voto non successit

[dl]

successit. Reserata enim Scissis

[dm]

nam <> ulterius

[dn]

illis speculiformibus non <ad…>, pulmonum inoculato vulnere, scissisque ulterius acutis

illis speculiformibus non <ad…>, pulmonum inoculato vulnere, scissisque magis abitis acutis

[do]

evomuit, ut cum Virgilio loquar, purpuream

[dp]

addere debeamus, quin

[dq]

In the text: attrhaere

[dr]

insitum deradere attrahere

[ds]

From this point on, text continues on p. XII.r.

[dt]

antiquo etiam tabo scatentia tabo delet ulcera

[du]

fodinae terra sulphurata

[dv]

In the text: catharroque

[dw]

tussi aspera catarrhoque

[dx]

viscido, tusseque aspera graves anhelosi

[dy]

aqua communi calentes calamo

[dz]

superimponatur; ruboresque faciei tollit sulphur

[ea]

enim, observante Ettmulero, refertur

[eb]

quae faciei cuti

[ec]

From this point on, text continues on p. XI.v.

[ed]

In the text: numo

[ee]

In the text: charactheribus

[ef]

In the text: numo

[eg]

praebet.

Intendimi chi può, che m’intend’io.

Nec

[eh]

From this point on, text continues on p. 6.

[ei]

cutis beneficia externa

cutis emolumentum externa

[ej]

opes fumantis praecipue sub

opes accensi praecipue sub

[ek]

sentit. Tabidos, Asthmaticos, et pulmone ulceroso squallidos saepe

sentit. Tabidos, Asthmaticos, tussiculosos, phytisicosque saepe

[el]

nostro s<aup…> eventu

[em]

tollerent

[en]

From this point on, text continues on p. XII.v.

[eo]

This paper is the recycled scrap of a letter. On the right edge of the verso is written: “Um.mo

Andando Pietro”

[ep]

favere. Qui vero, sulphuris operibus incumbunt, omnes sani degunt, non ultimum misellae plebis solatium. Hinc non ut metallurgi damnati ad poenam, sed ad felicitatem existunt. Nec

favere. Deverso <haec>, ac <> <…d…>i accentu, ac austico, quoniam diverso re<s> dedi<t> partum, apparatu m<etall…> Nec

favere. Tantae molis est, diversum mixtorum ingenium partis cognoscere, et dato tempore naturae non morbo favere. Nec

[eq]

From this point on, text continues on p. 6.

[er]

pestilentiali aut contagioso quodam

[es]

exemplo, atque doctrina, et

[et]

morbi tyrannidem saevitiem

morbi truculentiam saevitiem

[eu]

sulphuris seu flores (in the manuscript, the order of the words “sulphuris” and “resinae terrestris seu” has been inverted by marking them with numbers).

[ev]

alveolum, sive modulum liquato sulphure elevantur

[ew]

sulphureis moleculis ramentis

[ex]

sapiunt observante id et cum amatissimo, et doctissimo viro D. Victorio Stancario, ex

[ey]

praxim adeo tam

[ez]

concipies.

Ramentis Moleculis

[fa]

erumpens in externum

[fb]

variosque

[fc]

colores velamen a

[fd]

partes inglorio abiecto

[fe]

Stancardus

[ff]

provido quodam fatorum

[fg]

sepposito promiscuae immiscuae

[fh]

labores, et incogitata vitae pericula deludens

[fi]

impraegnatam

[fj]

chalcantosa aliqua parva

[fk]

aciditate gravidum liquamen

[fl]

In the text: similima

[fm]

nonnulli blaterent putent

[fn]

From this point on, text continues at the bottom of p. 6.

[fo]

montis dextera sinistra

[fp]

pyrites, marchesitaeve incertae

[fq]

quamplurimae

[fr]

Margin note (right): Volve unam paginam

[fs]

From this point on, text continues on p. 9.

[ft]

Dupplex

[fu]

Glabellum

[fv]

immixtae stratis tabulatis

[fw]

In the text: soli

[fx]

pollinem rediguntur fatiscunt

[fy]

quodam non inerudito, me

[fz]

sudoriferis, tanquam alchalica, et lepartica febribus

[ga]

aureulis lamellibus

[gb]

vetra

[gc]

tum illibata adhuc

[gd]

patentia diluviana, vel antediluviana pelagi

[ge]

ac

[gf]

mare, ubi quo

[gg]

Glabellum

[gh]

<>lino-nitrosum

[gi]

sulphureo-viscidum

[gj]

ubi praeternaturaliter aestuat

[gk]

et incogitata egregia

[gl]

collibus ad fucatas palatus delicias dulcissimae

[gm]

inhvehunt

[gn]

Parte laeva dextera

[go]

ex margae mineralis subrubrae turbinati colliculi assurgunt

[gp]

genus, ac scabro

[gq]

semina excudunt, inveni emittit

[gr]

Margin note (left): Fig. 2

[gs]

secundam; ac tu quoque hariolare. Semidigitum

[gt]

entalorum

[gu]

intersectae, q qua

intersectae, cuius qua

[gv]

rubra-cinerosa

[gw]

dignissimum meritumque celeberrimae Academiae

[gx]

essent, tutarer scirem

[gy]

In the text: plectronarios

[gz]

deteguntur, quae et

[ha]

Bononiense

[hb]

obtinuisse refert monet

[hc]

Margin note (left): Fig. 3

[hd]

Scyllae

[he]

haec

[hf]

ambitus, ut ita dicam, corona plurimo

[hg]

In the text: similimo

[hh]

siliceo, py arenoso

[hi]

In the text: trapatiis

[hj]

terminabatur. Multa al Alias

[hk]

amice, Patriosque ingratosque

[hl]

In the manuscript, the order of the words “salutemus,” “tergo,” and “relictos” has been inverted by marking them with numbers.

[hm]

Post quatuor quinque

[hn]

sterilissima

[ho]

horrore feroces animos quosdam

horrore curioso praecipuo suo modo quosdam

[hp]

praecipites recessus abyssos

[hq]

Fastigiata sunt ubique

[hr]

et compacta coacta (in the manuscript, the order of the words “adeoque,” “coacta,” and “creta” has been inverted by marking them with numbers).

[hs]

undatim ac tabellatim modo dispositis

[ht]

inde disseminantur erumpunt

[hu]

qui rupti quandoque scissi

[hv]

aureas moleculas micas (in the manuscript, the order of the words “aureas” and “micas” has been inverted by marking them with numbers).

[hw]

naturam autumant non

[hx]

versus citra trans

[hy]

Ternarium fl torrentem

[hz]

iniucundum curiosis philosophorum

[ia]

mugit quandoque solum

[ib]

fluxile solum. Salsam

[ic]

perennis, et, ut

[id]

centum terrae montis

[ie]

minima

[if]

extra solitus

[ig]

diceres, cum comparatio ob tenuitatem, obscuritatemque loci subsannanda foret. grandia

[ih]

haec tamen enim

[ii]

In the manuscript, the order of the words “fulminat” and “tonat” has been inverted by marking them with numbers.

[ij]

ruinasque

[ik]

aqua stillitans punctuo

[il]

humore solamen nascentibus

[im]

etiam lutum eum

[in]

montis versus stillitat

[io]

possus

[ip]

In the text: dentritas

[iq]

In the text: 138

[ir]

etiam possunt queunt

[is]

scopulosque

[it]

aemulantis

[iu]

sepposito

[iv]

mulcere Parergo. Arabat

[iw]

ad immane saxum

[ix]

In the text: induncit

[iy]

ostio, magicum limen, quod

[iz]

In the text: aparuit

[ja]

pendulisque saxis tophis

[jb]

aureum fulgurabat erigebatur

[jc]

cineroso

[jd]

In the text: pixydulaeque

[je]

lucidus gelidum novum

[jf]

implere crumenam famem

[jg]

monstrante verum, sacculos

[jh]

memorandum saeculis omnibus annalibus

[ji]

depopulat

[jj]

In the text: discescessunt

[jk]

hostiis

[jl]

In the manuscript, the order of the words “iecere” and “vepretum” has been inverted by marking them with numbers.

[jm]

volam illas credebat

[jn]

contortas, horrendumque ac immane sibillantes

[jo]

inani, timore gelans, dolore fremens gelidusque perinani, cui, gelidusque per

[jp]

Transivit illico vicissim

[jq]

qui

[jr]

fortuna <>gies negotiis

[js]

eminentes

[jt]

creduntur. Et fortasse lepidam hanc inauditiunculam ipsi credulo popello imposuerunt, ut suspicionem omnem suas ex alienis opibus accumulatas opes averterent, invidiaeque, ac litium tela fabuloso clypeo retunderent. Sed

[ju]

divagemus

[jv]

Margin note (left): Vide Epist. 2 pag.

[jw]

Quaram balneum thermas

[jx]

tota Italia Europa

[jy]

Regiensibus a medicos

[jz]

multos

[ka]

temvo

[kb]

sentiant incommoda iras

[kc]

Margin note (left): De Thermal. Aq. Cap. 25, pag. mihi 324

[kd]

affectae, tepidiusculae frigidiusculae

[ke]

odore graves praeditae

[kf]

intestinalibus, aut cuiuscumque speciei insectis extinguendis in nostri corporis latebrulis quandoque hospitantibus extinguendis

[kg]

In the text: flatulentae

[kh]

licet palmari circa

[ki]

situm plectatur errore a

situm erraverit a

[kj]

ripas

[kk]

obmutuerunt. Orientem Septentrionem

[kl]

foramine vel in ulteriores usus, vel in

[km]

locum reptatus descensus

[kn]

luto, ruderibus sabula

[ko]

gratissimae.

Transmissa Tranato

gratissimae.

Transmitto Tranato

[kp]

foetentes qui vulgo putantur sulphurei

[kq]

nomine scatent. Parum

[kr]

solum noti, et pecorique noti etc. gratissimi. Ibi

[ks]

In the text: glomi

[kt]

examinari

[ku]

Obscura

[kv]

spernenda magnae matris beneficentia

[kw]

earundem fructuum phyliris

[kx]

ac nigrae vestes, illis

ac illae illis

[ky]

filamenta telarum, quae

[kz]

Si tabaccinum ziziphinum

[la]

salicis pumicis alpinae

[lb]

eruerentque

[lc]

From this point on, text at p. 22 continues on the recto of an additional, unnumbered paper (XIII). This is the recycled cover of a letter. On the verso is written: “All’Ill.mo Sig.re Sig.re P.rone Col.mo

Il Sig.re Antonio De’ Vallisnieri Pubb.o Prof.e

nello Studio di

Padova”

[ld]

experimenta. Nullum Nondum

[le]

acquae

[lf]

fere volatile innocens

[lg]

sinu condunt fovent

[lh]

fervido, aliisque et

[li]

tono depauperatis suppetias allaturas languentibus

[lj]

posse, non minime

[lk]

interis

[ll]

tot celeberrimos praestantissimos

[lm]

ut interim experientias

[ln]

utilitatem procul dubio allaturo/is vindicaturi asciscent

utilitatem adsciscent asciscent

[lo]

From this point on, text continues on p. 22.

[lp]

anno mala sors

[lq]

tessulatim veluti dispositi

[lr]

semperque

[ls]

undis flagellat lambit, pervenimus accessimus

[lt]

Arx haec erat

[lu]

horrendum ingens, scopulumve

[lv]

rubro-lividum

[lw]

Margin note (left): Tasson.

[lx]

tartaro, cautes minimis

[ly]

refertis

[lz]

argenteamve

[ma]

sterilemque aeream cupream (uti referunt) solum invenerant

[mb]

salicibus

[mc]

a tacitis subterraneis

[md]

dicem

[me]

costae

[mf]

rupis

[mg]

facies

[mh]

per stratorum tabulatorum

[mi]

macerantur, verrenturque rodunturque

[mj]

tandem Alpium quas Apeninum

[mk]

Letis

[ml]

Alpes (Alpe di S. Pellegrino) vocant

[mm]

resistens non sine lacrymis venerati

[mn]

catharactas impenetrabiles inaccessas

[mo]

quot altissimos arcanos

[mp]

Adhuc Augustus mensis Augusti mensis erat aestuans

[mq]

fagus securi, aeternum

[mr]

ubera latent. Udo

[ms]

fine carent stillantes

[mt]

machinas hydraulicas hydrophylaces

[mu]

desunt, hydrophylacia, cisternae foetae perpetuae

[mv]

enim nec Scitula Scultemna

[mw]

Glabellum

[mx]

radices lambens praeterfluens

[my]

inde in Mutinensi planitie variis e tortibus artefactis locis tanquam

[mz]

ingeniose sapientissimus clarissimus

[na]

collega noster meus

[nb]

Margin note (left): De Font. Mutin. Admiranda Scaturig. Tractatus Physico-Hydrostaticus, Mutinae 1691

[nc]

fontium, omniumque perennium copiarum qui

[nd]

rarior fluxus cursus

[ne]

terrarum orbe gremio

[nf]

fluxes

[ng]

absorpte, ut plurimum, per

[nh]

shoc

[ni]

Margin note (left): Animad. 86

[nj]

disseruit, non amplectar. Quod

[nk]

In the text: mare

[nl]

quis, aut ubi, aut

[nm]

meum cum etenim

[nn]

Margin note (left): Lucret.

[no]

homines, in Deumque, in universamque

[np]

aperiae

[nq]

per elitteras

[nr]

non ex substratis aperto

non vicinis aperto

[ns]

solum planitiebus, ut in nostris agris, sed

[nt]

penetrati

[nu]

experimentis infida fallax

[nv]

nullum porosum marmor

[nw]

Liburnique manente Casteno puteos

[nx]

scilicet evidenti indubio

[ny]

mutuentur aquas. Alia

[nz]

Caspasque

[oa]

vel expuenda expungenda

[ob]

substratis planitiebus agris

[oc]

triste caelum, me

[od]

audire subposita subiecta

[oe]

Videbas

[of]

modus

[og]

tonabat. Non etenim ibi fabul Ex

[oh]

bohemicis

[oi]

absimiles

[oj]

stiriae

[ok]

In the text: candum

[ol]

referengem

[om]

Margin note (right): Volve ad pag. 31 dopo sette carte

[on]

Margin note (left): Si voltino 7 carte etc.

[oo]

Margin note (right): Volve ad pag. 31

[op]

Margin note (left): Tunc oculis

[oq]

Margin note (right): *Tunc oculis obiicitur etc. (volve retro septem paginas)

[or]

From this point on, text at p. 31 continues on nine additional papers (XIV–XXII), placed between pp. 30 and 31.

[os]

In the text: vicubusque

[ot]

This name is written in regular font.

[ou]

Margin note (left): Lib. 2, Cap. 1, p. 42, 43 videatur

[ov]

Margin note (left): Ode al S.r D. Ascanio Pio di Savoia etc.

[ow]

These lines are written in regular font.

[ox]

On a small scrap of paper (XV.r):Ariost. Satir. 7, parlando di C. Nuovo di Garfagnana Piuttosto di’, ch’io lascerò l’asprezzadi questi sassi, e questa gente incultasimile al luogo, ov’ella è nata, e avvezza:e non avrò qual da punir con multa,qual con minacce e da dolermi ognorache qui la forza alla ragione insulta. e poco dopo Se pur ho da star fuor, mi sia nel SacroCampo di Marte senza dubbio meno,che in questa fossa abitar duro, ed acro. Intende per C. Nuovo di Garfagnana.

[oy]

hac ego nos

[oz]

In the text: reccollecta

[pa]

cuius

[pb]

excaventur

[pc]

cum aedificata sint castra

[pd]

In the text: apellavit

[pe]

fertilitate

[pf]

In the text: apellatus

[pg]

These lines are written in regular font.

[ph]

affluxit

[pi]

Metallum

[pj]

tum

[pk]

Antiquitus vero enim

[pl]

vulpeculis quandoque saepe

[pm]

clarescit.

Aer non inclemens, sed <> Alpes malus sub Alpibus <…f…ex…> <> meridies.

Quinque

[pn]

In the text: apellant

[po]

militibus, vel lanceariis

[pp]

In the text: Binas

[pq]

militibus militibus, armisque

[pr]

In the text: munitas

[ps]

In the text: prommittens

[pt]

Verrucole Arx verrucosa antiquum

[pu]

Lunae

[pv]

In the text: Provincia

[pw]

Devi

[px]

14 die Martis anno

[py]

Romanarum

[pz]

From this point on, text continues on a small scrap of paper (XXI). This is the recycled cover of a letter. On the verso is written: “All’Ill.mo Sig.r mio P.ron Colmo

Il Sig.r Antonio Vallisnieri

Franca per Venezia

Padua”

[qa]

vera tibi consona existimem

[qb]

Turre Tam elegantissima praefatione ad lectorem versus finem Non

[qc]

This phrase is written in regular font.

[qd]

From this point on, text continues on paper XXII.r.

[qe]

di S. Marcione

[qf]

Vicus Cornelii Cetheghi Sergii

[qg]

Iulii

[qh]

Campus Regis Iani Roscianus

[qi]

Silano—Vicus Sillae Silicis Silvanius

[qj]

Niciano. Vicus Niciae—Vicus Niciae Anicii. This last word is written by a different hand (see the following note).

[qk]

Valerius (from this point on, the list is written and finished by a different hand. The author is Domenico Cecchi. His handwriting was recognized thanks to the the autograph inscription on the first map).

[ql]

Servilius Geminius

[qm]

Virginius Tricostus

[qn]

Cornelius Malugineus

[qo]

Valerius Messala

[qp]

Pompeus Magnus

[qq]

Cerageto—Vicus Curiati Targemini V. Tergeminius Curiatus

[qr]

Menenius Lanatus

[qs]

Aurelius Ceretanus

[qt]

Caius Acatius

[qu]

Lucretius Tricipitinus

[qv]

Fabius

[qw]

Statilius Taurus

[qx]

Furius Philus

[qy]

Oppius

[qz]

Aurelius Costa

[ra]

Cassius Viscellinus

[rb]

Elius Tuberus

[rc]

Accilius Glabria

[rd]

Calfurnius Bibulus

[re]

Lucius Cethegus

[rf]

Gallus Caninus

[rg]

Plautus

[rh]

Fonteius

[ri]

Papirius

[rj]

Oratius Paluillus

[rk]

Publius

[rl]

Marcus Aemilius

[rm]

Aemilius Barbula

[rn]

Elius

[ro]

Aruntius

[rp]

Luctatius

[rq]

Dolobella

[rr]

Hostilius Mancinus

[rs]

Ebutius

[rt]

Caius Fabricius

[ru]

Publius Cossus

[rv]

Fabius Ambustus

[rw]

Ottacillus Crassus

[rx]

Roggio—L V. Lucius

[ry]

Popilius

[rz]

Ventidius Bassus

[sa]

Lucius Velleius

[sb]

Curius Dentatus

[sc]

Calfurnius

[sd]

Munatius Plancus

[se]

Elianus

[sf]

Fulvius Centimalus

[sg]

Genutius Clepsina

[sh]

Capitolinus

[si]

Gneus Peticus

[sj]

Caeso Duillius

[sk]

Gneus Genutius

[sl]

Verennius

[sm]

Lucius Emilianus

[sn]

Geganio Mamercino

[so]

Caecilius Metellus

[sp]

Livignanus

[sq]

Cornelius Aruina

[sr]

Aurelius Orestus

[ss]

Livius

[st]

Vibius

[su]

Nautius Rutilius

[sv]

Vallisneri’s handwriting restarts from this point.

[sw]

Etc.

Ex Timotheo Tramontio, et Bartholomeo Morgantio Antiquariis

Quae

[sx]

substratam aeris cupri

[sy]

quam

[sz]

condebatur, quae cui

[ta]

aliquam esse, potius suspicari

[tb]

citra Serchium Aesarem

[tc]

quae ex in

[td]

scatent aquae, solae

[te]

lices

[tf]

demetant

[tg]

Lavellius, me fallor, primus fuit, qui harum

[th]

Castronovo Caferonianae. Sunt

[ti]

dies deglutiuntur novantur

[tj]

ac aliis variis

[tk]

spemque

[tl]

remedium sentirent, turmatim

remedium experirentur, turmatim

[tm]

cachoetees

[tn]

adsciscunt

[to]

oppitulentur

[tp]

Dolus

[tq]

undas

[tr]

ulterius armata ditata

[ts]

vires perurbana hospitalitate levavimus

[tt]

omnes favoribus officiis

[tu]

crateres

[tv]

omine <…> coronantes coronantes

[tw]

lalentemque Catonem vidisse

lalentemque minerarum vidisse

[tx]

grata benevolentia, ac operosa liberalitate hospitalitate

[ty]

adhucquae

[tz]

ferventissima defluit cogitur

[ua]

visceribus defluens fistulato

[ub]

parites

[uc]

exustas

[ud]

corfus

[ue]

elascescit

[uf]

Montis (in the manuscript, the order of the words “Montium” and “Euganeorum” has been inverted by marking them with numbers).

[ug]

Montium, exceptis illis, si

[uh]

e<x>erruntque

[ui]

In the text: revocato suo omnibus revocato tono

[uj]

organulis tono omnibus

[uk]

eiusdem

[ul]

generaliter succrescentem enascentem

[um]

uterique scelera sordes

[un]

supphur

[uo]

cutaneas miliares glandulas

[up]

pigrave ac vapescentis

[uq]

rationem consceleret coinquinet

[ur]

qualibet sordida, ac foetenti externa

[us]

oppitulantur

[ut]

Margin note (left): Claud.

[uu]

paenituit

[uv]

acris sacendi cognoscendi

[uw]

praecipua palatis palati

[ux]

foeminasque comptas magis, quam sumptuosas, lepidulas, atque blandidulas, Veneres

[uy]

ac maiestate lenitate

[uz]

Margin note (left): D. Hyeron. Epist.

[va]

expolliunt

[vb]

munera sudata dispensat

[vc]

amiculis, collipendulis ad

[vd]

rodentia liquet, qua

[ve]

In the manuscript, the order of the words “roburque” and “rodendi” has been inverted by marking them with numbers.

[vf]

fines, quas quos

[vg]

Areostus tuus, ita

[vh]

resurgunt. Nil crudius magna parens fabbricare potuit, atque innocentius. Non

[vi]

praeeunte humanissimo sagacissimo

[vj]

inexpectata generosa urbanitas

[vk]

urbanitas illis nobilissimis iuvenis, qui in diversoriolum

urbanitas illis per honestissimi iuvenis, qui in diversoriolum

[vl]

Obstupui munificam, facilemque

[vm]

indoles, et venustissima forma lateret

[vn]

mihi prono pariter interrogante quaerenti

[vo]

Austriae, se mineris

[vp]

praeesse

[vq]

benignumque tam illustris hospitis

[vr]

itinere, tutis dapibus, securi

[vs]

recreavimus

[vt]

auxiliis, auxilia deliciis immiscet

[vu]

In the text: fumusa

[vv]

aspectu sanitatis mella recondit salutem

[vw]

felicissimum hoc aevo nostro nostrum

[vx]

Patavini munus amabile pensum

[vy]

scatendibus

[vz]

calamum meamque mentem adhuc

[wa]

meamque mentem curiositatem

[wb]

pensim

[wc]

splendore, (quicquid caeco impetu ferox, et nimium famae gravis latet invidia) spectatissimus

[wd]

uliginae

[we]

Tabescunt subito, si

[wf]

Margin note (left): De Gen. Met.

[wg]

Cur cubo pede igitur dubie eam pede expiscamur ex a

[wh]

utriusque analysi enchyrisi

[wi]

foventes essent sunt

[wj]

permiscua

[wk]

Sed rursus iterum

[wl]

horum Alpium montium

[wm]

eructantur. Cum Quando

[wn]

nivibus turget gliscit

[wo]

abserberi

[wp]

In the manuscript, the order of the words “revocat” and “undas” has been inverted by marking them with numbers.

[wq]

aequant

[wr]

superant

[ws]

hortus

[wt]

Margin note (left): Nimis implicata <…>i periodus

[wu]

elegans tacita simulavit

[wv]

aquas non ingrato tristi

[ww]

per cadentes obliqua cadentes cadentes exhudiebamus

[wx]

Margin note (left): Vel transvecti

[wy]

rumigerulum tranati translati

[wz]

origo torrentis rivuli

[xa]

adglutinabat undis, partim spummoso

[xb]

desserebamus

[xc]

In the text: transpostant

[xd]

etiam, subterraneisque occultisque

[xe]

spiracula reconditer sensim

[xf]

pelvim descendunt cadunt

[xg]

ascensum

[xh]

trahant, sic quoniam

[xi]

loquor

[xj]

montis occultis rivulis

[xk]

From this point on, text at p. 49 continues on an additional paper (XXIII). This is unnumbered, and is written only on the recto.

[xl]

concrete

[xm]

recurvae funes labra

[xn]

non naturae polidedalae

[xo]

In the text: cogitata subgrundia

[xp]

From this point on, text continues on p. 49.

[xq]

This paper is the recycled scrap of a letter. Above in the verso is written: “Orazione del S.r Cataneo”

[xr]

nives

[xs]

caederet

[xt]

Margin note (left): Silius Ital.

[xu]

Delphinus

[xv]

aestivis intra urbes ardoribus

[xw]

mendatio

[xx]

liberavis

[xy]

scribo, ut sed

[xz]

vetavit

[ya]

In the text: autore

[yb]

annos <>l<>s<> apertum

[yc]

alia excipiet, vel excipere deberet narrare

[yd]

indoles

[ye]

In the manuscript, the order of the words “marmorum” and “tartarearum” has been inverted by marking them with numbers.

[yf]

In the text: enucleatione

[yg]

enucleatio. diaspr<ulos> Hyaspides

[yh]

videbatur

[yi]

usus

[yj]

quisnam

[yk]

quisnam

[yl]

monticulis

[ym]

temperies rimata quaesita

[yn]

sententiam. Me pudet eos in hoc musarum regno, in hoc bonarum artium emporio delicata tristitia liquescentes, liventique tabo marcidos videre. Pudet edentulam eorum cernere potentiam, segnitiem claram, operosam ineptiam, labores irritos. Sed

[yo]

teque sartum tectum sospitet

[yp]

meo Patavino Patavino

 

Theory, Practice, and Nature In-between

Table of Contents

Foreword

PART I Introduction

1 On Context

2 On Method

Acknowledgements

PART II Primi Itineris per Montes Specimen Physico-Medicum: Transcription

3 Main Manuscript: Transcription

4 Other Papers: Transcription

5 Maps: Transcription

PART III Primi Itineris per Montes Specimen Physico-Medicum: Translation

6 Main Manuscript: Translation

7 Other Papers: Translation

8 Maps: Translation

Bibliography

PART IV Primi Itineris per Montes Specimen Physico-Medicum: Facsimile


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