Editorial conventions

Last Update: 08/13/2013

Layout issues

The layout of the printed version is automatically generated from the canonical TeX version used by Edition Open Access and cannot be changed by the editors and authors of a publication. If in specific cases the layout turns out to be inadequate, changes in the layout can be implemented in cooperation with the Development Team.

The layout of the downloadable PDF version corresponds exactly to the layout of the printed version. For the electronic formats (ePub and HTML) this layout is adapted to the specific advantages and restrictions of these formats.

Book format

In order to keep printing costs low, books are generally printed in A5 format and no color images are used. Color images can be used for the electronic versions.

A standardized design for the cover and the front matter has been implemented which should be adapted to the individual features of a book in cooperation with the Development Team. An image may be chosen to use on the cover, but this must be free of copyright protection since it will be featured on the Web.

Publications are uploaded to the server of the print-on-demand provider 'epubli' by the Development Team.


Headings, figures and tables are numbered automatically according to the outline hierarchy applied by the editors and authors.

The division of a publication into parts is optional. Parts are numbered using Roman numerals. Chapters, sections and subsections are numbered using a Latin decimal classification.

Page layout

Publications with Edition Open Access have a standardized page layout which is determined by the file (pre_eoa.tex).

If the chapters of a book are written by different authors, the chapter titles should be complemented with the command \EOAauthor. The header of each page will contain a shortened form of the chapter title and the page number. The footer remains empty.

The shortened title should have less than 70 characters. If the chapters are written by different authors, the names of these authors should be added in parentheses to the short title. Authors using TeX to write their manuscripts may insert the short title in curly brackets between the chapter command and the full chapter title:

\EOAchapter{short chapter title (author)}{chapter title\EOAauthor{author}}

The TeX code:

\EOAchapter{Spread of Buddhism (J. Braarvig)}{The Spread of Buddhism as Globalization of Knowledge\EOAauthor{Jens Braarvig}}

produces the title:

The Spread of Buddhism as Globalization of Knowledge
Jens Braarvig

and the header:

Spread of Buddhism (J. Braarvig).

If the publication contains one or more sections with facsimile reproductions, the header of the facsimile pages will be empty and the page numbers will appear in the footer. In this case, users of TeX may introduce the pages of facsimile reproductions with the following command:

\EOAfacsimilepart{Title of this part}


Footnotes are used:

  • for more than three references to literature (up to three citations can be given in the text, set in parentheses and separated with a semi-colon (author year; author2 year; author3 year)
  • for references with additional information
  • for supplementary arguments
  • for explanations of terms
  • for archival material
  • for the original text of translations (followed by the reference and information about the translation).

Extensive digressions in footnotes should be avoided and given instead in an appendix.

It is not possible to attach footnotes to headings.


Quotations should be set off from the text in indented paragraphs without quotation marks. The quotation should be given between the commands \begin{EOAquote} and \end{EOAquote}. A colon should be featured before the quotation unless this alters the meaning of the text. Short quotations (less than 3 lines) or partial sentences may run in the text in quotation marks.


Tables are used exclusively to list tabular data. They should not be used for presenting illustrative material. A separate environment is available for creating tables. The table can be given an offset header by using the command \EOAtablehead.

If a table is longer than one page, or is split by a page break, then it has to be manually wrapped. A table that does not require labeling or automatic numbering can use the label.

Avoid adding footnotes to information given in tables.

Bibliographic data

Bibliographic data should be entered in a bibliographic database and exported as a BibTeX file. The use of the file as a source for creating a bibliography in TeX is considerably influenced by practices in the natural sciences and sometimes produces unwanted results when applied to publications in the humanities.

  • There is no adequate format for modern editions of ancient authors. Some ancient titles already contain additional information, such as the editor or translator. When this is not the case, the title of the ancient publication should be extended with additional information, e.g., edited by, translated by, commented by, etc.
  • In ancient names such as Heron of Alexandria or Guidobaldo del Monte, the last word (Alexandria or Monte) is interpreted by BibTeX as a family name. To avoid this, the parts to be kept together should be framed with curly brackets, i.e. Guidobaldo {del Monte}.
  • If an author wants to give the original publication date of the newer cited edition of the same publication, the original publication should either be entered separately into the database and BibTeX file, or the year of the original publication should be placed in square brackets before the year of the cited publication. For instance, the entry '[first edition 1908] 2005' will occur this way in the bibliography, and as '2005' for in-text references. Reprints can be treated accordingly, e.g., '[1908] reprint 2005.'
  • The number of the edition should be followed by the appropriate ending, e.g., the entry '7th' in the field 'edition' will occur in the typset text as '7th edition'.
  • Some publishers use the ampersand (&) as part of their name. This sign has to be masked by a backslash in front (\&).
  • Subtitles that add substantial information to the title should be added in the title field of the bibliographic database or the BibTeX file. Title and Subtitle should be separated by a colon.
  • Page ranges should be indicated with an en dash, e.g., 5–78.

Capitalization of titles in foreign languages should follow the general orthographic customs of the country. Titles in English, including titles of books, journals, articles, chapters, dissertations and names of conferences, should be capitalized.

Transliterations or translations of foreign language titles should be given in square brackets.

Ancient titles should be moderately normalized, e.g., the Latin letter v should be replaced by the letter u, the letter vv by the letter w, and so on. In exceptional cases, where normalization is impossible without replacing obsolete words with modern ones, the titles should be cited with the original title.


EOA uses uses an in-text citation style

Bibliographic references are given in the text or footnotes in parentheses: (author year, pages):

(author's name(s) year of publication, pages etc.)
e.g. (Einstein 2005, 50)

The TeX-Code should look like this:

e.g. (\EOAciteauthoryear[50]{Einstein_2005})

If more than three references are cited, then these should be given in the footnotes.

References cited with additional information should be given in the footnotes.

See, for example (Einstein 2005).

The TeX-Code should look like this:

\EOAfn{See, for example (\EOAciteauthoryear{Einstein_2005}).}

If the author's name forms part of a sentence, then the year of publication may follow in parentheses.

Smith (1996) explains how ...

The TeX-Code should look like this:

Smith (\EOAciteyear{Smith_1996}) explains how ...

If the same author name and year are given for a series of sources, then these are given in the form Einstein 1916a,b,c. For this purpose, the command \EOAcitemanual[Zeichen]{Refer} can be used. The TeX-Code should be given as follows:


References to electronic sources

URLs should be given in footnotes, tagged in TeX as \EOAurl{http://.....}.

The date of access should be specified, e.g.:

\EOAfn{See \EOAurl{http://www.tanzania.go.tz/health.html}, accessed 27 March 2012.}

Numbers and dates

The author may decide if she/he would like to write numbers as words or numerals. As a rule, numbers from 1 to 10 should be written out. Dates should be written as follows:

eighteenth century
the 1920s
9 October 2000

For the designation of time periods, the neutral form (without periods) should be used:

BCE (not B.C.)
CE (not A.D.)

Use of emphasis and dashes

Authors should use italics (command \EOAemph) to emphasize terms or indicate foreign words. Do not use bold face.


use the en dash to connect numbers
e.g., 1900–1920, pp. 10–15
use em dashes to set off an amplifying or explanatory element
e.g., "He said—repeating his claim—that …".


Abbreviations, except for very common ones, must be defined the first time they are used. If there are many abbreviations, please provide a list with the manuscript.

Foreign writing systems

In principle, Unicode characters can be used for all writing systems. But since no Unicode font comprising all characters defined by Unicode currently exists, the font for each writing system must be specified. The authors should identify the writing systems they will use in their text and use a font that contains all the required characters. The fonts should not be proprietary so that no copyright is violated if they are used for printing. Texts written in a specific writing system should consistently use the same font.

In the TeX version of the texts, the fonts used are specified in the file (preamble_print.tex). This file currently contains definitions for Greek (font Times New Roman), Russian (font Times New Roman) and Chinese (font Apple LiSung on Mac OS X and DFBKai-SB on Windows). Contact the Development Team if other writing systems need to be implemented.

TeX users should indicate text written in a foreign writing system as follows:

\EOAgreek{ἀεὶ δὲ πλέον βάρος κινεῖ.}
\EOArussian{Государственный Эрмитаж обладает коллекцией}

For any issues not dealt with here, please refer to the The Chicago Manual of Style.